Tech

What The Study Did: This survey study examines changes in the use of e-cigarettes by those 24 years old and younger during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors: Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, Ph.D., of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.27572)

Children grow taller in rural households where their mothers are supported to grow their own food - according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

The research, which looked at households in low- and middle-income countries, showed growing their own food helped mothers to prevent stunting, wasting and underweight in their children. Their children's food was more varied, meaning they had access to different classes of food nutrients.

A team of Johns Hopkins University researchers has developed a new software that could revolutionize how DNA is sequenced, making it far faster and less expensive to map anything from yeast genomes to cancer genes.

A new study further implicates low levels of the amino acid glycine in development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD. It also suggests addressing this might hold the key to a future treatment for the disease.

"We've uncovered a new metabolic pathway and potential novel treatment," says senior author Y. Eugene Chen, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of internal medicine and surgery, from the Michigan Medicine Frankel Cardiovascular Center. His team collaborated with researchers from the University of Michigan, Wayne State University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

New Curtin University research has found southern Australian long-finned pilot whales are able to mimic the calls of its natural predator and food rival - the killer whale, as a possible ploy to outsmart it.

The study is the first published research analysing the calls of long-finned pilot whales in the Southern Hemisphere, which were recorded in the Great Australian Bight, off WA and SA, between 2013 and 2017.

The Bolson tortoise (Bolson Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the largest land reptile in North America. It lives mainly in dry areas, in particular, in the Chihuahua desert in northern Mexico. In recent decades, its numbers have fallen by 50%, driving the International Union for Conservation of Nature to include it on its red list and it has been classified as endangered. Land tortoises are prone to suffering from a wide range of diseases that can deplete their numbers even more, therefore understanding potential pathogenic organisms could help in advancing conservation strategies.

Although the DNA and its double-helix are one of the most familiar molecules of our time, our knowledge of how cells control what genes they want to express still is rather limited. In order to create, for example, an enzyme, the information that's inscribed in our DNA about this enzyme needs to be transcribed and translated. To start this highly complex process special regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific DNA regions. That way, they can turn the expression of a gene on and off.

Researchers at Duke University have completed the most comprehensive study to date on how a class of persistent pollutants called semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are associated with the gut microbiome in human children.

With an increasing demand for a more sustainable alternative for high-rise construction, new research from UBC Okanagan, in collaboration with Western University and FPInnovations, points to timber as a sustainable and effective way to make tall, high-density, and renewable buildings.

Over a quarter of all proteins in a cell are found in the membrane, where they perform vital functions. To fulfil these roles, membrane proteins must be reliably transported from their site of production in the cell to their destination and correctly inserted into the target membrane. Researchers from the Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH) have succeeded in determining the three-dimensional structure of a molecular machine responsible for the correct placement of an important membrane protein family - the so-called "tail-anchored" membrane proteins, or TA proteins for short.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Researchers have developed new 3D-printed microlenses with adjustable refractive indices - a property that gives them highly specialized light-focusing abilities. This advancement is poised to improve imaging, computing and communications by significantly increasing the data-routing capability of computer chips and other optical systems, the researchers said.

ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, Md. -- It's no secret the U.S. Army wants its small unmanned aerial systems to operate quietly in densely-populated regions, but tests to achieve this can be expensive, time-consuming and labor-intensive according to researchers.

A new paper in Science Advances describes for the first time how minerals come together at the molecular level to form bones and other hard tissues, like teeth and enamel.

The University of Illinois Chicago researchers who published the paper described their experiments -- which captured high-resolution, real-time images of the mineralization process in an artificial saliva model -- and their discovery of distinct pathways that support bone and teeth formation, or biomineralization.

Chestnut Hill, Mass. (12/03/2020) - Ocean pollution is widespread and getting worse, and when toxins in the oceans make landfall they imperil the health and well-being of more than 3 billion people, according to a new report by an international coalition of scientists led by Boston College's Global Observatory on Pollution on Health and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco, supported by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation.

Rusted iron pipes can react with residual disinfectants in drinking water distribution systems to produce carcinogenic hexavalent chromium in drinking water, reports a study by engineers at UC Riverside.

Chromium is a metal that occurs naturally in the soil and groundwater. Trace amounts of trivalent chromium eventually appear in the drinking water and food supply and are thought to have neutral effects on health. Chromium is often added to iron to make it more resistant to corrosion.