Tech

Understanding what makes something harmful or offensive can be hard enough for humans, never mind artificial intelligence systems.

So, perhaps it's no surprise that social media hate speech detection algorithms, designed to stop the spread of hateful speech, can actually amplify racial bias by blocking inoffensive tweets by black people or other minority group members.

In fact, one previous study showed that AI models were 1.5 times more likely to flag tweets written by African Americans as "offensive"--in other words, a false positive--compared to other tweets.

WASHINGTON, July 7, 2020 -- Sensors placed in the environment spend long periods of time outdoors through all weather conditions, and they must continuously power themselves in order to collect data. Many, like photovoltaic cells, use the sun to produce electricity, but powering outdoor sensors at night is a challenge.

WASHINGTON, July 7, 2020 -- Utility-scale photovoltaics, ground-mounted projects larger than 5 megawatts of alternating current, are the largest sector of the overall solar market within the U.S. and the fastest-growing form of renewable power generation.

This fleet of utility-scale photovoltaic projects is relatively young and hasn't been operating long enough to establish a lengthy history of operational field service. The first utility-scale photovoltaic projects in the U.S. came online in 2007, and most projects have been operating for only a few years.

7 July 2020: Couples embarking on IVF to treat their infertility tend to overestimate their chance of success, according to a prospective study of 69 couples having at least their second treatment attempt. Such over-optimism, suggest the authors, may be a source of distress or even a reason to discontinue their IVF treatment.

The results of the study will be presented today by embryologist Johanna Devroe from the University Hospital of Leuven, Belgium, during ESHRE's online Annual Meeting.

TROY, N.Y. -- An over-abundance of the protein PRC1, which is essential to cell division, is a telltale sign in many cancer types, including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer. New research, published online today in Developmental Cell, shows that PRC1 acts as a "viscous glue" during cell division, precisely controlling the speed at which two sets of DNA are separated as a single cell divides. The finding could explain why too much or too little PRC1 disrupts that process and causes genome errors linked to cancer.

Quantum information scientists have introduced a new method for machine learning classifications in quantum computing. The non-linear quantum kernels in a quantum binary classifier provide new insights for improving the accuracy of quantum machine learning, deemed able to outperform the current AI technology.

A team of engineers may be one step closer to cleaning up heavily contaminated industrial wastewater streams.

Researchers from the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering developed an electrochemical oxidation process with the aim of cleaning up complex wastewater that contained a toxic cocktail of chemical pollutants.

In experiments in rats and mice, two Johns Hopkins scientists -- an engineer and an ophthalmologist -- report the successful use of nanoparticles to deliver gene therapy for blinding eye disease. A uniquely engineered large molecule allows researchers to compact large bundles of therapeutic DNA to be delivered into the cells of the eye.

Very recently, Chinese researchers had achieved site- and spatial- selective integration of earth-abundant metal ions (e.g., Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+) in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for efficient and robust photocatalytic H2 evolution from water.

This research, published online in Matter, was conducted by a research team led by Prof. WU Lizhu and Dr. LI Xubing from the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Many animals, including dogs, cats and various species of monkeys, will move their ears to better focus their attention on a novel sound. That humans also have this capability was not known until now. A research team based in Saarland has demonstrated for the first time that we make minute, unconscious movements of our ears that are directed towards the sound want to focus our attention on. The team discovered this ability by measuring electrical signals in the muscles of the vestigial motor system in the human ear. The results have now been published in the journal eLife.

Increasing the levels of a chemical found in all human cells could boost a woman's fertility and help select the best eggs for IVF, according to University of Queensland research.

In the world's most in-depth study of the final steps of egg maturation, the quality of a woman's eggs was found to be significantly dependent on the important metabolic coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).

UQ Centre for Clinical Research scientist Professor Hayden Homer said NAD+ helps to ensure that eggs retain the bulk of their cellular building blocks as they mature.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Ivannikov Institute for System Programming, and the Harvard Medical School-affiliated Schepens Eye Research Institute have developed a neural network capable of recognizing retinal tissues during the process of their differentiation in a dish. Unlike humans, the algorithm achieves this without the need to modify cells, making the method suitable for growing retinal tissue for developing cell replacement therapies to treat blindness and conducting research into new drugs.

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is part of our genetic code and present in every cell of our body. The best known form of RNA is a single linear strand, of which the function is well known and characterized. But there is also another type of RNA, so-called "circular RNA", or circRNA, which forms a continuous loop that makes it more stable and less vulnerable to degradation. CircRNAs accumulate in the brain with age. Still, the biological functions of most circRNAs are not known and are a riddle for the scientific community.

Boston, Mass. - Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread cancellations of electively-scheduled or "non-emergency" operations were implemented to free up hospital beds and conserve protective equipment for health care workers. For some conditions, including cancer, timely surgery is critical for patients' survival. In a new study published in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, a team of investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) examined the effects of delaying surgery for gastrointestinal cancers.

Over the past few decades, medical technology seen various advances in terms of the scope and efficiency of implant devices. For example, developments in medical research have led to the emergence of electronic implants, such as pacemakers to regulate the heart rate and cerebral spinal shunts to control the flow of spinal fluid. Most of these medical devices, including the pacemaker, require a constant source of energy to operate. Naturally, this causes some limitations: batteries, which provide an energy source for the implants, have a finite lifespan.