Tech

LA JOLLA--(August 23, 2019) The ability to edit genes in living organisms offers the opportunity to treat a plethora of inherited diseases. However, many types of gene-editing tools are unable to target critical areas of DNA, and creating such a technology has been difficult as living tissue contains diverse types of cells.

Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed an organ-on-an-electronic-chip platform, which uses bioelectrical sensors to measure the electrophysiology of the heart cells in three dimensions. These 3D, self-rolling biosensor arrays coil up over heart cell spheroid tissues to form an "organ-on-e-chip," thus enabling the researchers to study how cells communicate with each other in multicellular systems such as the heart.

While analyzing interactions between parasites and hosts, a substantial amount of research has been devoted to studying the methods parasitic organisms use to control host behavior. In "Invisible Designers: Brain Evolution Through the Lens of Parasite Manipulation," published in the September 2019 issue of The Quarterly Review of Biology, Marco Del Giudice explores an overlooked aspect of this relationship by systematically discussing the ways in which parasitic behavior manipulation may encourage the evolution of mechanisms in the host's nervous and endocrine systems.

Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is one of the most important primary sources of pollution in urban environments. There is growing evidence that exposure to cooking oil fumes is linked to lung cancer. Currently, the most effective method to identify and quantify COA is through positive matrix factorization of OA mass spectra from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements.

Steadily and relentlessly, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea has slipped past medicine's defenses, acquiring resistance to once-reliable drugs, including penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. These former stalwarts are no longer used to treat the sexually transmitted disease.

WASHINGTON, D.C., August 23, 2019 -- When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion. By using smaller, controlled explosions, physicists can test on a microscale in a safe laboratory environment what could previously be tested only in larger, more dangerous experiments with bombs.

PITTSBURGH, Aug. 23, 2019 - Critically ill children brought to hospital emergency departments that are ill-prepared to care for pediatric emergencies have more than three times the odds of dying compared to those brought to hospitals well-equipped to care for them, according to an analysis led by University of Pittsburgh and University of California-Los Angeles physician-scientists.

Foods fried in vegetable oil are popular worldwide, but research about the health effects of this cooking technique has been largely inconclusive and focused on healthy people. For the first time, UMass Amherst food scientists set out to examine the impact of frying oil consumption on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer, using animal models.

A new study finds people who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which lies on the continuum of cognitive decline between normal cognition and dementia, are less likely to receive proven heart attack treatment in the hospital.

Researchers found no evidence that those with MCI would derive less benefit from evidence-based treatment that's offered to their cognitively normal peers who have heart attacks, says lead author Deborah Levine, M.D., MPH.

University of Calgary researchers at the Cumming School of Medicine (CSM) led by Drs. Donna Senger, PhD, Paul Kubes, PhD, and Stephen Robbins, PhD have discovered a new way to stop harmful inflammation in the lungs due to sepsis and injury.

A team of Australian researchers has designed a reliable strategy for testing physical abilities of humanoid robots - robots that resemble the human body shape in their build and design. Using a blend of machine learning methods and algorithms, the research team succeeded in enabling test robots to effectively react to unknown changes in the simulated environment, improving their odds of functioning in the real world.

In a new study, researchers at the University of Illinois and the Missouri University of Science and Technology modeled a method to manipulate nanoparticles as an alternative mode of propulsion for tiny spacecraft that require very small levels of thrust.

Japanese scientists at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have found that for stroke patients, observing their own hand movements in a video-assisted therapy - as opposed to someone else's hand - could enhance brain activity and speed up rehabilitation.

Their findings were first made available online in May and published in the July 7, 2019 issue of IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

A sophisticated chip the size of a coin in which cartilage can be cultivated and which can later be subjected to mechanical stress such that it generates the effects of Osteoarthrosis (OA).
This is the extraordinary result achieved at the Politecnico di Milano Laboratory MiMic (Microfluidic and Biomimetic Microsystems) by Marco Rasponi from the Milan-based campus, the study's coordinator alongside Andrea Barbero from the University Hospital of Basel.

Traditional medicines mostly function as inhibitors, attacking the disease-relevant proteins that cause cancer, by binding to their accessible pockets. Following this strategy, only ~20% of all proteins are chemically addressable, leaving some of the most relevant targets inaccessible to therapeutic development.