Earth

The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located near Manaus, Brazil, began in 1979 and is the world's longest-running experimental study of tropical forest fragments. A new paper in The Condor: Ornithological Applications summarizes four decades of data from the project about how Amazonian bird communities respond to habitat fragmentation, a question as relevant today as ever in light of the recent increase in deforestation in the Amazon.

Pre-school children who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of bone fractures during childhood than normal weight pre-schoolers, according to a study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

The study included 466,997 children with weight and height measurements at age 4 years who were followed for a median of 4.9 years.

In most animals, females are larger than males, but in most mammals, males are larger than females. A new analysis published in Mammal Review examines the potential drivers of these differences.

Chemotherapeutic drugs, also known as antineoplastic agents, that are prescribed to treat a range of cancer types, enter the aquatic environment via human excretion and wastewater treatment facilities. A review published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry indicates that very few studies have characterized the effects of antineoplastic agents that are released into aquatic environments.

Italy was the main origin of the individuals who first brought the novel coronavirus to Brazil, according to a study by Brazilian researchers in collaboration with colleagues in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Brazil between February and early March.

What The Viewpoint Says: Exploring the challenges in the Italian health care system during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and how other countries can plan for optimal actions.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1447)

A pair of chemicals used by wallflowers and their kin to ward off predators have evolved to complement each other, with one targeting generalist herbivores and the other targeting specialised herbivores that have become resistant to the generalist defence.

Key Takeaways:

Researchers identify critical factors at each of three phases of crowdfunding: "friend funding", "getting crowded", and "races to the goal" and the characteristics of crowdfunders contributing to the successful fund raising.

Based on this understanding, fundraisers can maximize both the likelihood of successful fund raising and the amount of capital raised by optimizing fundraising goals, and crowdfunding platforms can optimize their targeting strategies in promotional campaigns and better predict which projects are likely to be successful.

New Rochelle, NY, April 6, 2020--A team of researchers in Wuhan, China have developed a multidisciplinary self-managed home quarantine method that was effective in controlling the source of COVID-19 infection and was useful in alleviating the shortage of medical resources. Click here to read the article free on the Telemedicine and e-Health website.

A new report calls for measures to protect elderly people in long-term care facilities and their caregivers who are particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Elderly people in long-term care facilities are at high risk of dying from COVID-19 and the risk of transmission of the virus is also especially high at these residences.

The human knee is a triumph of design. The joint, which evolved fairly rapidly from our common ancestor with the chimpanzee to accommodate our bipedalism, likely contributed to our success as a species. However, as modern medicine extends the human lifespan, our species have learned pain in the form of osteoarthritis that can accompany the locomotion of this biomechanical masterpiece.

Tropical Cyclone Harold brought heavy rains and hurricane-force winds to Vanuatu and was moving toward Fiji when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with an image of the storm.

Visible imagery from NASA satellites help forecasters understand if a storm is organizing or weakening. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a visible image of Harold on April 7, which showed the western quadrant of the storm east of Vanuatu while eastern quadrant was already affecting Fiji.

Often considered desolate, remote, unalterable places, the high seas are, in fact, hotbeds of activity for both people and wildlife. Technology has enabled more human activity in areas once difficult to reach, and that in turn has brought a growing presence of industries such as fishing, mining and transportation in international waters -- the ocean beyond 200 nautical miles from any coast.

Warming at the Third Pole has increased vegetation growth that can, in turn, slow down warming.

The Third Pole has seen an increase in vegetation over the past three decades. This phenomenon, also known as "greening," may help slow rapid local warming, according to an invited review paper published in the inaugural issue of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment.

Unlike humans, sea turtles and other reptiles like crocodiles do not have sex chromosomes. Their sex is defined during development by the incubation environment. In sea turtles, sex is determined by the nest's temperature: warmer temperatures produce females and cooler temperatures produce males. It is especially challenging to identify the sex of hatchling sea turtles because they lack external sexual organs and heteromorphic sex chromosomes -- no X or Y. To date, there are a limited number of ways to reliably identify sex in turtle hatchlings.