All the cells of an organism contain a copy of DNA in their nucleus. In order to implement the instructions it contains, this DNA must be copied into an RNA molecule, which reaches the ribosomes, which in turn read this information and synthesise proteins. The codons, animo acid triplets that form proteins and are the markers the ribosomes need to know how to produce each protein, are key in this transition process. There exist a total of 61 codons that code for 20 amino acids, and three codons that act as stop signals in the translation process.

In the majority of studies carried out until now Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used according to a methodology based on the final evaluation of an already finished design. This article proposes a new approach of using LCA as an evaluation tool at the time of design, so making environmental-impact reduction criteria part of the decision-making process in projects so that they affect the final outcome.

Personality in humans has been a well-known concept for long, but during the last two decades science has shown us that also other animals express personalities, for example, in sociability. Differences in personality between the sexes is also a topic in behavioural biology, but besides primates, little is known about personality differences between sexes in long-lived highly social mammals, as studies tend to focus on shorter lived species.

Most laypersons are familiar with the three states of matter as solids, liquids, and gases. But there are other forms that exist. Plasmas, for example, are the most abundant form of matter in the universe, found throughout our solar system in the sun and other planetary bodies. Scientists are still working to understand the fundamentals of this state of matter, which is proving to be ever more significant, not only in explaining how the universe works but in harnessing material for alternative forms of energy.

A study of university rugby players has shown that they are more likely to suffer sleep disordered breathing than an average middle-aged man.

The study also showed that the athletes who experience this problem are also more likely to have low levels of oxygen in their blood and higher pulse rates during the night, suggesting that athletes with sleep disordered breathing may be at risk of heart abnormalities.

SEATTLE - At what age do you feel 65?

A 30-year gap separates countries with the highest and lowest ages at which people experience the health problems of a 65-year-old, according to a new scientific study.

Researchers found 76-year-olds in Japan and 46-year-olds in Papua New Guinea have the same level of age-related health problems as an "average" person aged 65.

NHS-approved PARP inhibitor therapy found to boost the body's immune response

Drugs could be used to increase number of patients who respond to immunotherapies

Treatment developed for ovarian and breast cancers could also work in some lung cancers

Precision cancer drugs called PARP inhibitors have a previously unknown ability to boost the immune system, and could help many more patients benefit from immunotherapy, a new study reveals.

Weaving stories and intriguing names into children's education about the natural world could help to engage them with species' conservation messages, new research shows.

A team at the University of Birmingham carried out a study to explore the potential of species' cultural heritage for inspiring the conservationists of the future. Focusing on magpies, one of the UK's most easily recognised birds, the researchers presented schoolchildren with information about the birds, and then asked them questions about their attitudes to magpies and the conservation of the species.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- Brown University researchers have developed a new antibacterial coating for intravascular catheters that could one day help to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections, the most common type of hospital-acquired infection.

It's widely accepted within agriculture that maintaining genetic diversity is important. In areas where crop plants are more diverse, pathogens might kill some plants but are less likely to wipe out an entire crop.

Few studies, however, have focused on such highly specialized pathogens in natural plant communities. In diverse plant communities, pathogens are thought to maintain diversity by killing common species, making room for rare ones. But what happens to diversity if, like in agriculture, pathogens harm some plants within a species, but not all?