Earth

As a cucumber plant grows, it sprouts tightly coiled tendrils that seek out supports in order to pull the plant upward. This ensures the plant receives as much sunlight exposure as possible. Now, researchers at MIT have found a way to imitate this coiling-and-pulling mechanism to produce contracting fibers that could be used as artificial muscles for robots, prosthetic limbs, or other mechanical and biomedical applications.

SAN FRANCISCO (July 11, 2019) - Africa has new purple-clad warriors more than 200 feet beneath the ocean's surface. Deep-diving scientists from the California Academy of Sciences' Hope for Reefs initiative and the University of Sydney spotted dazzling fairy wrasses--previously unknown to science--in the dimly lit mesophotic coral reefs of eastern Zanzibar, off the coast of Tanzania.

An international team of researchers has succeeded in measuring the current system responsible for Jupiter's aurora. Using data transmitted to Earth by NASA's Juno spacecraft, they showed that the direct currents were much weaker than expected and that alternating currents must therefore play a special role. On Earth, on the other hand, a direct current system creates its aurora. Jupiter's electric current system is kept going in particular by large centrifugal forces, which hurl ionized sulfur dioxide gas from the gas giant's moon Io through the magnetosphere.

Role of immune cells called macrophages in causing pain in endometriosis revealed

Researchers from the University of Warwick and the University of Edinburgh demonstrate that macrophages increase growth and activation of nerve cells

Endometriosis can lead to significant pain and infertility for women

176 million women worldwide suffer from endometriosis

A key cause for the pelvic pain experienced by women with endometriosis has been uncovered, potentially opening new opportunities for pain relief for the condition.

International team including University of Warwick scientists identifies proteins that drive activation of our immune response

Adaptor proteins act as a 'clutch' to move clusters of proteins within cells

Could open opportunities to design immune cells to combat specific problems

Protein condensates are involved; have been found to play roles in many biological processes and diseases, including Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and types of cancer

Damaged peripheral nerves can regenerate after an injury, for example, following a forearm fracture. Axons, the long projections of neurons that transmit stimuli or signals to other cells, are affected in the case of injury and need to regrow to recover their function. The research team led by Prof. Claire Jacob at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and at the Swiss University of Fribourg investigated the details of this repair process and have demonstrated that the same mechanism could be activated in cells of the central nervous system - after a spinal cord injury, for instance.

Rising temperatures could mean no male loggerhead turtles hatch at a key breeding ground by the end of this century, new research suggests.

The University of Exeter study also warns that - by 2100 - more than 90% of loggerhead nests on the Cape Verde islands could incubate at "lethally high temperatures", killing turtles before they hatch.

The sex of turtle hatchlings is determined by incubation temperature, and this study combined current temperature and hatchling data with projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Botanist Dr. Clement Coiffard of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin discovered the oldest, completely preserved lily in the research collection: Cratolirion bognerianum was found in calcareous sediments of a former freshwater lake in Crato in northeastern Brazil. With an age of about 115 million years, Cratolirion is one of the oldest known monocotyledonous plants. These include orchids, sweet grasses, lilies and lilies of the valley.

An international research team has revealed a novel mechanism for the perception of endogenous peptides by a plant receptor. The discovery of this activation mechanism sets a new paradigm for how plants react to internal and external cues. The study 'Mechanisms of RALF peptide perception by a heterotypic receptor complex' was published today in the journal Nature.

DeKalb, Ill. -- A new study led by Mitch Irwin and Karen Samonds of Northern Illinois University finds that degraded rainforest habitats are having an unhealthy impact on at least one species of Madagascar's treasured lemurs, the most endangered mammal group in the world.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Gulf of Mexico and took the temperature of Potential Tropical Cyclone 2 as it moved westward through the Gulf of Mexico. NASA found the very cold cloud tops indicating the storm had potential for dropping heavy rain.

Infrared light enables NASA to take the temperatures of clouds and thunderstorms that make up tropical cyclones. The stronger the storms are indicate that they extend high into the troposphere and have cold cloud top temperatures.

They look like smears of pink bubblegum on the rocks off British Columbia's coast, indistinguishable from one another.

But a new DNA analysis of coralline algae led by UBC and Hakai Institute researchers has revealed a wealth of different species - a diversity that could hold the key to protecting critical underwater habitats like kelp forests.

The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite provided a couple of views of Tropical Storm Barry that showed its cloud heights and rainfall rates.

Chaco Canyon, a site that was once central to the lives of pre-colonial peoples called Anasazi, may not have been able to produce enough food to sustain thousands of residents, according to new research. The results could shed doubt on estimates of how many people were able to live in the region year-round.

MINNEAPOLIS - A new study has found that mentally stimulating activities like using a computer, playing games, crafting and participating in social activities are linked to a lower risk or delay of age-related memory loss called mild cognitive impairment, and that the timing and number of these activities may also play a role. The study is published in the July 10, 2019, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.