Earth

During the first three years of California's five-year-old cap-and-trade program, the bulk of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions occurred out of state, thus forgoing in-state reductions in harmful co-pollutants, such as particulate matter, that could improve air quality for state residents, according to a new study led by San Francisco State University and University of California, Berkeley researchers.

Working together and exchanging services for the benefit of everyone involved is crucial for humans and partly responsible for our success as a species. In order to achieve a goal, we need to choose the best possible cooperation partners. Yet who qualifies as the best possible partner depends on the task at hand, the abilities of all available candidates, and on our social relationships with them. Like humans, many non-human primates live in close-knit social groups. Individuals cooperate with each other to their mutual benefit, and often by exchanging services.

Two thousand years ago the Mediterranean Sea was a haven for two species of whale which have since virtually disappeared from the North Atlantic, a new study analysing ancient bones suggests.

The discovery of the whale bones in the ruins of a Roman fish processing factory located at the strait of Gibraltar also hints at the possibility that the Romans may have hunted the whales.

Illuminating fishing nets with low-cost lights could reduce the terrible impact they have on seabirds and marine-dwellers by more than 85 per cent, new research has shown.

A team of international researchers, led by Dr Jeffrey Mangel from the University of Exeter, has shown the number of birds caught in gillnets can be drastically reduced by attaching green battery-powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

PITTSBURGH (July 10, 2018) ... Persistent organic pollutants--or POPs--skulk around the environment threatening human health through direct contact, inhalation, and most commonly, eating contaminated food. As people are becoming more aware of their food's origin, new research at the University of Pittsburgh suggests it might be just as important to pay attention to the origin of your food's food.

A collaboration between professors from The University of Texas at El Paso and the University of North Texas is leading to a better understanding of the composition of dust carried by rain across the state, and how that dust can affect the places where it ends up.

An article published July 6, 2018, in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, a publication of the American Geophysical Union, details for the first time how dust - and the compounds it contains - are dispersed throughout the state in rainwater.

Six new species of unique land snails whose shells are covered with what look like scales have been described from the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo by scientists Mohd Zacaery Khalik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kasper Hendriks, University of Groningen, Jaap Vermeulen, JK Art & Science, and Prof Menno Schilthuizen,

The parasitic disease schistosomiasis is one of the developing world's worst public health scourges, affecting hundreds of millions of people, yet only a single, limited treatment exists to combat the disease.

Researchers at the Morgridge Institute for Research are searching for potential new targets by probing the cellular and developmental biology of its source, the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma.

Sea levels in coastal areas can be affected by a number of factors: tides, winds, waves, and even barometric pressure all play a role in the ebb and flow of the ocean. For the first time, however, a new study led by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) has shown that river outflow could play a role in sea level change as well.

Coral reefs support a quarter of all marine life, feed hundreds of millions of people and contribute vastly to the global economy. But they are dying in mass bleaching events, as climate change warms our oceans and breaks down vital relationships between corals and energy-providing algae.

A new commentary, published in Communications Biology from Nature Research, provides hope that a shift in research focus towards coral immunity will support reef conservation and restoration efforts.