Earth

An epigenetic change, a form of DNA control, that deactivates some genes linked to cancer late in human development has been conserved for more than 400 million years, new research led by the Garvan Institute of Medical Research suggests.

EPFL scientists have created the first world map of regions with the highest prevalence of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). They hope that their map - freely available online - will help governments and NGOs design more effective prevention campaigns based on reliable data, particularly when it comes to setting up refugee camps. The scientists' research has just been published in Scientific Reports.

HERCULES, Calif. - July 11, 2019 - Scientists presented more than 30 abstracts featuring Bio-Rad's Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) technology at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting in Chicago, May 31-June 4. Many of these studies used liquid biopsy powered by the ddPCR platform to measure circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and evaluate ctDNA's potential as a biomarker for guiding cancer treatment decisions and predicting efficacy.

RICHLAND, Wash. July 10, 2019 - The goal of the research, published July 11 in the journal Nature, was to engineer artificial proteins to self-assemble on a crystal surface by creating an exact match between the pattern of amino acids in the protein and the atoms of the crystal. The ability to program these interactions could enable the design of new biomimetic materials with customized colors, chemical reactivity or mechanical properties, or to serve as scaffolds for nano-scale filters, solar cells or electronic circuits.

Questions commonly used to explore the "Big Five" personality traits--Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism--generally fail to measure the intended personality traits in developing countries, according to a new study. This is because measurement of these traits relies on surveys typically applied to White Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic (WEIRD) populations. The Big Five personality trait model is used to inform issues related to crime, employment, and wages in high-income countries.

Terahertz (THz) radiation is a bit like a treasure chest that resists being opened fully. Residing in the electromagnetic spectrum between the infrared and microwave regions, THz radiation combines a range of properties that are ideal with a view to applications. It provides a window to unique spectroscopic information about molecules and solids, it can penetrate non-conducting materials such as textiles and biological tissue, and it does so without ionising -- and hence damaging -- the object, or subject, under study.

Nearly 10 years ago, a group of Israeli clinical researchers emailed Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) geneticist Len Pennacchio to ask for his team's help in solving the mystery of a rare inherited disease that caused extreme, and sometimes fatal, chronic diarrhea in children.

Now, following an arduous investigative odyssey that expanded our understanding of regulatory sequences in the human genome, the multinational scientific group has announced the discovery of the genetic explanation for this disease. Their findings are published in Nature.

An unexplored cosmos of potential materials

The number of potential new materials that can be assembled from elements in the periodic table is immense - even if researchers were to limit themselves to the 40 to 50 elements that are non-toxic, eco-friendly, and available on Earth in sufficient quantities. These possibilities remain as yet for the most part unexplored.

In very hot or cold environments, conventional tape can lose its stickiness and leave behind an annoying residue. But while most people can avoid keeping taped items in a hot car or freezer, those living in extreme environments such as deserts and the Antarctic often can't avoid such conditions. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' journal Nano Letters say they have developed a new nanomaterial tape that can function over a wide temperature range.

Scientists seeking to bring to Earth the fusion that powers the sun and stars must control the hot, charged plasma -- the state of matter composed of free-floating electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions -- that fuels fusion reactions. For scientists who confine the plasma in magnetic fields, a key task calls for mapping the shape of the fields, a process known as measuring the equilibrium, or stability, of the plasma. At the U.S.

DURHAM, N.H. - As the summer months heat up, so will the asphalt and other materials used to make roads. Pavements, which are vulnerable to increased temperatures and excessive flooding due to sea level rise, can crack and crumble. Climate change can be a major contributor and as greenhouse gas emissions continue, which scientists say have caused an increase in global temperatures since the mid-20th century, these issues are projected to accelerate.

Diabetes Patients Experiencing Empathy From Primary Care Practitioners Have Lower Risk of Mortality

Sea urchins have gotten a bad rap on the Pacific coast. The spiky sea creatures can mow down entire swaths of kelp forest, leaving behind rocky urchin barrens. An article in the New York Times went so far as to call them "cockroaches of the ocean." But new research suggests that urchins play a more complex role in their ecosystems than previously believed.

A new model based on daily oceanographic data and the movements of tagged whales has opened the potential for stakeholders to see where in the ocean endangered blue whales are most likely to be so that ships can avoid hitting them.

Ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet doesn't just melt. The ice actually slides rapidly across its bed toward the ice sheet's edges. As a result, because ice motion is from sliding as opposed to ice deformation, ice is being moved to the high-melt marginal zones more rapidly than previously thought.