Earth

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Sept. 18, 2018) - With age, expression of a small molecule that can silence others goes way up while a key signaling molecule that helps stem cells make healthy bone goes down, scientists report.

They have the first evidence in both mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells that this unhealthy shift happens, and that correcting it can result in healthier bone formation.

The small molecule is microRNA-141-3p and the signaling molecule is stromal-cell derived factor, or SDF-1, they report in the Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences.

You are in a strange neighbourhood, your cell phone's dead, and you desperately need to find the closest garage. A couple of people on the street chime in, each sending you in opposite directions. One person sounds like a local and speaks in a nonchalant manner, while the other uses a loud, confident voice but speaks with a strong accent. Who are you going to trust? A recently published study shows that unless they speak in a confident tone of voice, you're less likely to believe someone who speaks with an accent.

The remains of a buried pine forest at the foot of Mont Saint Genis in Southern France yield insightful information on a drastic climate change event. The pine tree stand initiated around 12,900 years ago during the relatively warm "Allerød" period, and continued growing into the cold snap of the "Younger Dryas" period.

Washington, DC - September 18, 2018 - An international team of researchers has successfully deployed a Zika virus vaccine to target and kill human glioblastoma brain cancer stem cells, which had been transplanted into mice. In a study published this week in mBio®, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, the team shows that a live, attenuated version of the Zika virus could form the basis of a new treatment option for this fatal brain cancer.

On Sunday, Sept. 16, Typhoon Mangkhut had made landfall in southern China and Hurricane signal #10 was still in force. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the storm and captured an image that showed the storm after landfall.

A Red Alert, the most severe warning was issued by authorities in southern China.

At 5 a.m EDT (0900 UTC) on Sunday, Sept. 16, Mangkhut was centered near 21.6 north latitude and 113.6 east longitude, about 54 miles southwest of Hong Kong. Mangkhut was moving to the west-northwest at 17 knots and had maximum sustained winds 80 knots (92 mph/148 kph)

Careful sample preparation, electron tomography and quantitative analysis of 3D models provides unique insights into the inner structure of reverse osmosis membranes widely used for salt water desalination wastewater recycling and home use, according to a team of chemical engineers.

These reverse osmosis membranes are layers of material with an active aromatic polyamide layer that allows water molecules through, but screens out 99 to 99.9 percent of the salt.

Long before bacteria had to contend with antibiotic drugs, they had to survive extreme temperatures as Earth warmed and cooled over millennia. Could the adaptations they evolved to temperature -- especially heat -- help explain why certain strains are resistant to certain drugs? A new study by a research team at the University of California-Los Angeles that includes Santa Fe Institute External Professors Pamela Yeh and Van Savage suggests that defenses against extreme temperatures, do, indeed, give E. coli bacteria an advantage in fending off certain drugs.

Paris, France: Babies exposed to higher levels of organochlorine compounds in the womb go on to have worse lung function in childhood, according to new research presented today (Tuesday) at the European Respiratory Society International Congress [1].

These compounds, which include the pesticide DDT, as well as electrical insulators and other industrial products, are now banned in most parts of the world. However, because they degrade very slowly, they are still present in the environment and in foods.

If you look at a map of land use in scientifically advanced countries like the U.S. versus Europe, you see something startling - if the world adopted modern agricultural technology, farmland equivalent to the country of India could revert to nature. Of course, that is not reality. Organic food is a $90-120 billion industry worldwide and that is just one alternative process. Kosher, halal, and other manufacturing methods also reduce efficiency.

Paris, France: Evidence of tiny particles of carbon, typically created by burning fossil fuels, has been found in placentas for the first time, in new research presented today (Sunday) at the European Respiratory Society International Congress [1].

Previous research has indicated links between pregnant mothers' exposure to air pollution and premature birth, low birth weight, infant mortality and childhood respiratory problems.