Culture

How do big-game animals know where to migrate across hundreds of miles of vast Wyoming landscapes year after year?

Among scientists, there are two camps of thought. First is that animals use local cues within their vicinity to determine where to migrate. Animals might move up to areas with greener forage -- often termed green-wave surfing -- or move down from mountains with deeper snow. The second idea is that animals develop memory of the landscape where they live and then use that information to guide their movements.

DURHAM, N.C. -- Children of incarcerated parents are six times more likely than other children to develop a substance use disorder as adults and nearly twice as likely to have diagnosable anxiety, according to new research from the Center for Child and Family Policy at the Duke University Sanford School of Public Policy.

Irvine, Calif., Aug. 23, 2019 -- A new study, published in the journal Clinical Psychological Science, suggests that the time adolescents are spending on their phones and online is not that bad.

Restless legs syndrome was associated with a nearly tripled risk of suicide and self-harm in a new study led by Penn State researchers.

Using Big Data, the researchers found that people with restless legs syndrome (RLS) had a 2.7- fold higher risk of suicide or self-harm, even when the researchers controlled for such conditions as depression, insomnia, diabetes and others.

The study was published today (Aug. 23) in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Network Open.

For the first time, researchers have managed to view previously inaccessible details of certain chemical processes. They have shown there are significant discrete stages to these processes which build on our knowledge of chemical synthesis. These details could aid in the development of methods to synthesize chemicals with greater control and precision than ever before. Methods such as these could be useful in materials science and in drug development.

An international group of scientists studied the effects of 17 different lifespan-extending interventions on gene activity in mice and discovered genetic biomarkers of longevity. The results of their study were published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

BLOCKCHAIN. Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have developed a prototype of an app that may potentially prescribe the optimal dose of medicine for the individual patient, as well as prevent counterfeit products.

Big data. Machine Learning. Internet of Things. Blockchain. Futuristic concepts from the world of technology will likely soon find their way into your medicine cabinet - and onto your mobile phone.

Certain semiconductor structures, so-called quantum dots, might constitute the foundation of quantum communication. They are an efficient interface between matter and light, with photons (light particles) emitted by the quantum dots transporting information across large distances. However, structures form by default during the manufacture of quantum dots that interfere with communication. Researchers at the University of Basel, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, and Forschungszentrum Jülich have now successfully eliminated these interferences.

Japanese scientists have found a new way to successfully detect the efficiency of crystal semiconductors. For the first time ever, the team used a specific kind of photoluminescence spectroscopy, a way to detect light, to characterize the semiconductors. The emitted light energy was used as an indicator of the crystal's quality. This method potentially culminates in more efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. Additionally, it could usher in several other advances in electronics.

How do cells generate and use energy? This question might seem simple, but the answer is far from simple. Furthermore, knowing how microbial cell factories consume energy and how proteins are allocated to do so is crucial when working with industrial fermentations.

Now, researchers have shown that it is possible to evoke a shift in the metabolism from fermentation to respiration of E. coli and baker's yeast by optimizing fermentation conditions. This shift means that the cells can be pushed into producing more internal energy (ATP).

The nanostructures from Katja Höflich's HZB team are shaped like corkscrews and made of silver. Mathematically, such a nano antenna can be regarded as an one-dimensional line that forms a helix, characterized by parameters such as diameter, length, number of turns per unit length, and handedness.

A new study indicates that some exoplanets may have better conditions for life to thrive than Earth itself has. "This is a surprising conclusion", said lead researcher Dr Stephanie Olson, "it shows us that conditions on some exoplanets with favourable ocean circulation patterns could be better suited to support life that is more abundant or more active than life on Earth."

Stanford, CA (Aug 22, 2019) -- As sea levels rise, many communities will be forced to relocate or be swallowed by the sea. Yet, retreat--relocation of communities in response to natural hazards and climate impacts--remains immensely controversial, and getting people and governments to plan for it is an uphill battle on several fronts. Below, researchers A.R. Siders, Miyuki Hino and Katharine Mach discuss their related article, published in the journal Science, on why, where, when and how communities should plan for retreat.

Plants, like humans and animals, have over millions of years evolved complex immune systems that fend off invading pathogens. But unlike many animals, plants lack adaptive immunity conferred by antibodies. This means each plant cell must defend itself against all potential pathogens - a daunting task.

University of York researchers have designed an app to help new parents become more 'tuned in' to what their babies are thinking and feeling.

The app, called BabyMind, prompts the parent to think about things from their baby's perspective and to consider what is going on in their baby's mind at a specific point each day. It also provides parents with accurate information on babies' psychological development.