Research has found a proposal to regulate mining of Indigenous lands in Brazil's Amazon rainforest could affect more than 863,000 square kilometres of forest and harm the nation's economy.

Led by University of Queensland visiting PhD student Juliana Siqueira-Gay, an international collaboration has warned that President Jair Bolsonaro's 2020 bill to mine inside recognised Indigenous Lands would come at a cost.

"Brazil's Indigenous Lands are unbelievably valuable - socially, ecologically and economically," Ms Siqueira-Gay said.

Global maps of places where people and forests coexist show that an estimated 1.6 billion people live within 5 kilometers of a forest. The assessment, based on data from 2000 and 2012 and published September 18 in the journal One Earth, showed that of these 1.6 billion "forest-proximate people," 64.5 percent were located in tropical countries, and 71.3 percent lived in countries classified as low or middle income by the World Bank.

In the past decade, researchers have engineered an array of new tools that control the balance of genetic inheritance. Based on CRISPR technology, such gene drives are poised to move from the laboratory into the wild where they are being engineered to suppress devastating diseases such as mosquito-borne malaria, dengue, Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever and West Nile. Gene drives carry the power to immunize mosquitoes against malarial parasites, or act as genetic insecticides that reduce mosquito populations.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Studies indicate that homemade masks help combat the spread of viruses like COVID-19 when combined with frequent hand-washing and physical distancing. Many of these studies focus on the transfer of tiny aerosol particles; however, researchers say that speaking, coughing and sneezing generates larger droplets that carry virus particles.

The melanoma is a malignant tumor of the pigment cells. If diagnosed early, the tumor can be removed completely - and the chances of recovery are good. But in later stages, when the tumor has already spread or formed metastases in other parts of the body, the prospects become worse for those affected.

No effect for a good half of patients

Free electron X-ray lasers deliver intense ultrashort pulses of x-rays, which can be used to image nanometer-scale objects in a single shot. When the x-ray wavelength is tuned to an electronic resonance, magnetization patterns can be made visible. When using increasingly intense pulses, however, the magnetization image fades away. The mechanism responsible for this loss in resonant magnetic scattering intensity has now been clarified.

Every day, we make hundreds of decisions. While most are small and inconsequential, like choosing what to eat or wear, others are more complex and involve weighing up potential costs and benefits, like deciding whether to study more for a better grade instead of hanging out with friends.

By André Julião | Agência FAPESP – Researchers at the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil have characterized a novel family of anti-bacterial toxins present in bacteria, including Salmonella enterica. This species uses toxic proteins to kill other bacteria in gut microbiota and facilitate colonization of the infected host’s gut.

The study is published in Cell Reports and featured on the cover of the journal.

School closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted access to low or no-cost school breakfast and lunch programs for millions of low-income children. States and school districts developed innovative solutions to meet the nutritional needs of children and respond to the rapidly growing food insecurity crisis, yet the number of replacement meals is likely far short of what they provided prior to the pandemic, according to a study led by a researcher at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The findings are published in the American Journal of Public Health.