Brain

Discrimination against people thought to be infected with coronavirus was experienced by a rising number of United States residents, particularly racial minorities, in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study from the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.

Tsukuba, Japan - In Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Indiana must choose his grail "wisely", as a poor choice spells instant death. According to a new study by Professor Masayuki Matsumoto at the University of Tsukuba, making these kinds of choices involves dopamine neurons in the brain. Specifically, the study shows that dopamine neurons represent different parts of the decision-making process as it unfolds.

No matter how close parks are to home, perceptions of park-centered crime may keep New Yorkers from using them.

Researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine found that New Yorkers are more likely to exercise in a park if they believe they live very close to it. In turn, they feel less anxious and less depressed the more often they exercise there -- but only if they are not concerned about being safe.

A group of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have further refined the use of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. By accurately localizing electrode placement in the brains of patients, the researchers were able to identify a fiber tract which is associated with the best clinical outcomes following deep brain stimulation. The researchers' findings, which have been published in Nature Communications*, may be used to improve the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Over the past few years, fuel cells have become a focal point of research in eco-friendly technology because of their superior abilities to store and produce renewable energy and clean fuel. A typical type of fuel cell gaining ground is the proton-conducting fuel cell, which is primarily made of materials through which hydrogen ions (protons: H+), can easily move.

As COVID-19 spread across the country earlier this year, forcing schools and universities to close, Jessica L. Malisch began to notice an alarming trend - but not related to the virus.

"I was alarmed by patterns I was observing in the academic community in regards to how COVID-19 campus and childcare closures appeared to be impacting female scientists disproportionately," said Malisch, an assistant professor of biology at St. Mary's College of Maryland.

Researchers have developed an algorithm that can predict whether trauma survivors are likely to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The tool, which relies on routinely collected medical data, would allow clinicians to intervene early to mitigate the effects of PTSD.

The study was published online today in Nature Medicine.

30 Million Trauma Patients Each Year in United States

To comprehend and process the social crisis and upheaval in everyday life that have resulted from the corona pandemic, we need research and new perspectives.

Researchers of early childhood education at Åbo Akademi University, University of Helsinki, University of Gothenburg, Örebro University and Umeå University have studied how children attending day-care or preschool comprehended coronavirus at the time of its initial outbreak.

A surge in use of online sports betting platforms, and promotional tactics such as free bets to hook users in, pose a significant and growing public health challenge which needs urgent attention from policymakers, according to the author of a new academic study.

Writing in the Journal of Public Health, Dr Darragh McGee from the University of Bath highlights how a normalisation of online sports betting over recent years has had detrimental impacts on the lives of young adult men.

DALLAS (July 2, 2020) - Researchers at Center for BrainHealth®, part of The University of Texas at Dallas, recently examined underlying brain networks in long-term cannabis users to identify patterns of brain connectivity when the users crave or have a desire to consume cannabis. While regional brain activation and static connectivity in response to cravings have been studied before, fluctuations in brain network connectivity had not yet been examined in cannabis users.

ITHACA, N.Y. - Although studies have shown that women are more likely than men to enter and complete college in U.S. higher education, women are less likely to earn degrees in science, technology, engineering and math fields.

In new research, Kim Weeden, the Jan Rock Zubrow '77 Professor of the Social Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences at Cornell University, traces the discrepancy in college majors back to gender differences that emerge early in high school.

The opioid and addiction epidemic didn't go away when the coronavirus pandemic began. But rapid changes in regulations and guidance made during COVID-19 response could also help many more people get care for opioid use disorder and other addiction problems.

The researchers used powerful laser flashes to irradiate thin, films of crystalline materials. These laser pulses drove crystal electrons into a fast wiggling motion. As the electrons bounced off with the surrounding electrons, they emitted radiation in the extreme ultraviolet part of the spectrum. By analyzing the properties of this radiation, the researchers composed pictures that illustrate how the electron cloud is distributed among atoms in the crystal lattice of solids with a resolution of a few tens of picometers which is a billionth of a millimeter.

What started out as a hunt for ice lurking in polar lunar craters turned into an unexpected finding that could help clear some muddy history about the Moon's formation.

Team members of the Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft found new evidence that the Moon's subsurface might be richer in metals, like iron and titanium, than researchers thought. That finding, published July 1 in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, could aid in drawing a clearer connection between Earth and the Moon.

Women exposed to successful and charismatic role models are more likely to follow them in choosing a university major.

An experiment with undergraduates studying introductory economics classes at Southern Methodist University (SMU) in the USA, published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, revealed that female students were hugely more likely to study the subject further having encountered successful female graduates of the same course.