Brain

Since its rediscovery and characterization in 2004, graphene has been the focus of countless research efforts across multiple fields. It is a very versatile material consisting of a two-dimensional (2D) carbon network; in other words, it comprises a thin sheet of carbon that has a thickness of one atom. Graphene is not only stronger than the strongest steels, but also has a myriad of interesting chemical, electronic, and mechanical characteristics that has left scientists wondering if similar 2D networks of other materials could have such useful properties.

Caregivers of people with dementia lose between 2.5 to 3.5 hours of sleep weekly due to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep -- a negative for themselves and potentially for those who receive their care, Baylor University researchers say.

But the good news is that simple, low-cost interventions can improve caregivers' sleep and functioning.

Elite athletes have high rates of oral disease despite brushing their teeth more frequently than most people, finds a new UCL study.

The findings, published in the British Dental Journal, highlight potential for improvement as most of the athletes expressed an interest in changing their oral hygiene behaviour to improve their oral health.

Despite the fact that people in sub-Saharan Africa are now living longer than they did two decades ago, their average life expectancy remains below that of the rest of the world population. A new study looked into the importance of various causes of death in Zambia and how eliminating the most prominent of these would impact life expectancy in the country.

WASHINGTON -- In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. With their innovative method, the researchers were able to demonstrate quantum interactions between two particles spaced more than 180 meters (590 feet) apart while eliminating the possibility that shared events during the past 11 years affected their interaction.

A paper explaining these results will be presented at the Frontiers in Optics + Laser Science (FIO + LS) conference, held 15-19 September in Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Surgeons wielding their life-saving scalpels, laparoscopic tools, or other implements to repair or remove what ails their patients understand all too well that pain is an unavoidable part of the healing process. Yet the current opioid crisis has made the standard prescribing practices for these highly effective analgesics fraught with risk.

New research from Michigan Medicine could help clinicians mitigate that risk by identifying which patients are more likely to continue to use opioids after their immediate recovery period.

They're physically and emotionally wounded - most likely suffering from post-traumatic stress. Members of the United States military who serve abroad often return to the U.S. to treat their injuries and must be transported by aeromedical evacuation between medical facilities. Those who undergo these types of evacuations are in states of both chronic and acute stress.

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo examined data from 28 million trips for possible links between four bad driving behaviours - speeding, hard braking, hard acceleration and hard cornering - and the likelihood of crashes.

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles.

A new study led by University of Chicago researchers suggests a significant link between exposure to environmental pollution and an increase in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Based on analysis of large population data sets from both the United States and Denmark, the study, published in PLoS Biology, found poor air quality associated with increased rates of bipolar disorder and major depression in both countries.

The implementation of a novel quality improvement toolkit has shown to enhance early detection and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy, according to a study led by St. Michael's Hospital.

IRON Deficiency in Pregnancy with Maternal IrOn OptiMization (IRON MOM) is a paper-based toolkit that includes clinical pathways and educational resources to guide clinicians and expectant mothers through diagnosis and management of iron deficiency.

ANN ARBOR -- Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new University of Michigan study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.

Children with blood vitamin D levels suggestive of deficiency were almost twice as likely to develop externalizing behavior problems--aggressive and rule breaking behaviors -- as reported by their parents, compared with children who had higher levels of the vitamin.

The most engaging educational videos are correlated with similar brain activity across learners, according to research in young adults recently published in eNeuro.

Yi Hu and colleagues at East China Normal University showed university students two-minute introduction clips for 15 online classes and monitored their brain activity via electroencephalogram. The students ranked the clips based on their desire to learn the material and then rated how interesting and valuable the class seemed.

River diversions have not created or maintained land, but resulted in more land loss, according to a new paper in the peer-reviewed science journal Restoration Ecology. LSU Boyd Professor R. Eugene Turner and his LSU co-authors Erick Swenson and Michael Layne, and Dr. Yu Mo, University of Maryland, used satellite imagery to study the differences between the percent land before and after a river diversion was opened.

What types of electricity storage could have the biggest impact globally for a low-carbon energy future? Can humanity simultaneously de-carbonize energy and extend heat, lighting and transportation to more than a billion people now living with without modern energy services?

These are the types of big-picture questions that are being answered by the research that fits into a new academic discipline--"macro-energy systems"--proposed by a group of researchers led by Stanford University.

Introducing gamification to medical and dental education can boost student motivation and lead to better learning outcomes, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. Using their own mobile devices, students on a histology course took trivia quizzes on the course topics focusing on human cells and tissues. According to students, this promoted interaction and created a positive learning atmosphere. The findings were published in BMC Medical Education.