Brain

For the first time, a study has shown a distinction between how risk is cognitively processed by law-abiding citizens and how that differs from lawbreakers, allowing researchers to better understand the criminal mind.

“We have found that criminal behavior is associated with a particular kind of thinking about risk,” said Valerie Reyna, the Lois and Melvin Tukman Professor of Human Development and director of the Cornell University Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility. “And we have found, through our fMRI capabilities, that there is a correlate in the brain that corresponds to it.”

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- A new study finds that 21-month-old infants can distinguish between respect-based power asserted by a leader and fear-based power wielded by a bully.

The study, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, analyzed infants' eye-gazing behavior, a standard approach for measuring expectations in children too young to explain their thinking to adults. This "violation-of-expectation" method relies on the observation that infants stare longer at events that contradict their expectations.

Asthma patients, with a specific genetic profile, exhibit more intense symptoms following exposure to traffic pollution, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and collaborators. The study appeared online in Scientific Reports.

PHILADELPHIA --With medical school loan debt averaging $200,000, many physicians pursue the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program that eliminates federal student loans after 10 years of service in the public sector.

It has long been assumed that the content of dreams can tell us something about the person's well-being. However, so far dream researchers have mostly studied the dreams of people suffering from various disorders and we know very little about the positive side of well-being: do happier people have happier dreams? Well-being researchers, on the other hand, have specifically studied happiness, but have neglected an important aspect of well-being - peace of mind.

Results from a Movement Disorders study suggest that occupational stress is associated with Parkinson's Disease risk, such that having a high-demand occupation is a risk factor and low control is protective.

High job demands were associated with increased Parkinson's Disease risk among men, especially in men with high education. High control was associated with increased risk among individuals with low education, and this association was more pronounced in women.

Lectures are a staple of higher education, and understanding how students interact and learn within the lecture theatre environment is central to successful learning. In a new study published in FEBS Open Bio, researchers examined students' reasons for choosing particular seats in a lecture hall, and investigated how seating positions correlate with student performance.

CORVALLIS, Ore. - When adults are participants in school recess - leading games, monitoring play and ensuring conflicts are mediated quickly - children are more likely to be engaged in recess activities, a new study has found.

The study, which focused on the recess environment and student engagement during school recess periods, also found that students were more likely to be active and engaged during longer recess periods; that boys were more engaged in recess that girls; and that recess provides more than a quarter of students' school-based physical activity each day.

A new research study published in the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management tackles an important, unresolved question in the biology of invasive plants.

Arlington, Va., August 16, 2018 - The consequences of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reach well beyond patients' physical health, souring social relationships, and leading some healthcare providers (HCP) to distance themselves from affected patients, according to a qualitative, systematic review published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).