Brain

From a young age, children have a nuanced understanding of fairness.

New University of Michigan research indicates that children as young as 5 incorporate market concerns—the idea that what you get is in line with what you give or offer—into their decision making, and increasingly do so with age.

Some people think children are innately selfish—they want to get goodies for themselves. Other people think children are innately altruistic—they care about helping others. Most people think children are both.

Children who are exposed to hostile, escalating conflicts between parents are at increased risk for developing mental health problems. However, many children from homes marked by conflict don't experience significant psychological problems. A new longitudinal study sought to determine why some children are protected from the negative consequences of witnessing repeated hostility between their parents. It found that having a good relationship with a sibling may help buffer the distress of ongoing family conflict.

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- The effects of sibling relationships may go beyond childhood bickering and bonding, according to Penn State researchers who found that these relationships may predict similarities and differences in siblings' education later in life.

WASHINGTON -- Explosive volcanic eruptions that shot jets of hot ash, rock and gas skyward are the likely source of a mysterious Martian rock formation, a new study finds. The new finding could add to scientists' understanding of Mars's interior and its past potential for habitability, according to the study's authors.

The Medusae Fossae Formation is a massive, unusual deposit of soft rock near Mars's equator, with undulating hills and abrupt mesas. Scientists first observed the Medusae Fossae with NASA's Mariner spacecraft in the 1960s but were perplexed as to how it formed.

The results of a study to be presented at the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (EULAR 2018) suggest that rates of anxiety and depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis correlate with measures of disease activity over the first year following diagnosis.1

Stress in early childhood leads to faster maturation of certain brain regions during adolescence. In contrast, stress experienced later in life leads to slower maturation of the adolescent brain. This is the outcome of a long-term study conducted by researchers of Radboud University in which 37 subjects have been monitored for almost 20 years. The findings will be published in Scientific Reports on 15 June.

People who have greater levels of mindfulness -- or the tendency to maintain attention on and awareness of the present moment -- are better able to cope with the pain of being rejected by others, according to a new study led by a team of Virginia Commonwealth University researchers.

VANCOUVER, Wash. - While tuition inflation presents a challenge for many college-bound students, an area of growing concern for many universities is "grade inflation" -- in part caused when instructors grade more leniently to discourage students from retaliating by giving low teaching evaluations.

Washington State University researchers say instructors can stop worrying about evaluation revenge as long as they use practices in the classroom that students perceive as fair.

A new scientific report from an international team of psychological researchers aims to resolve the so-called "reading wars," emphasizing the importance of teaching phonics in establishing fundamental reading skills in early childhood.

WASHINGTON -- A systemwide change to the culture and climate in higher education is needed to prevent and effectively respond to sexual harassment, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. There is no evidence that current policies, procedures, and approaches - which often focus on symbolic compliance with the law and on avoiding liability -- have resulted in a significant reduction in sexual harassment.