Brain

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Military veterans exposed to combat were more likely to exhibit signs of depression and anxiety in later life than veterans who had not seen combat, a new study from Oregon State University shows.

The findings suggest that military service, and particularly combat experience, is a hidden variable in research on aging, said Carolyn Aldwin, director of the Center for Healthy Aging Research in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at OSU and one of the study's authors.

People with both physical illnesses and mental disorders visit the emergency department more frequently than people with multiple physical illnesses or mental illness alone, according to a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Visual motion is an important source of information for separating objects from their backgrounds.

A spider camouflaged against a branch, for instance, immediately loses its invisibility once it starts moving. A friend you're trying to spot in a crowded airport terminal is more distinguishable once she begins waving her hands.

While the process of separating an object from a background is seemingly effortless, researchers don't know how our visual system manages to rapidly pick out and segregate moving objects from their backgrounds.

Main Findings:

Partnerships between Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and local police departments designed to enforce immigration laws reduced the number of Hispanic students in U.S. public schools in adopting counties by 10 percent after two years.

Partnerships enacted during 2000 to 2011 displaced about 320,000 Hispanic students, with the impact concentrated among elementary school students, most of whom were likely born in the United States.

Feeling safe and being able to get to sleep at night are the things that matter most to sick kids in hospital, according to world-first research from Edith Cowan University.

Researchers at ECU's School of Nursing developed the 'Needs of Children Questionnaire' (NCQ), the first of its kind to measure children's self-reported psychosocial, physical and emotional needs in paediatric wards.

They assessed 193 school-aged children in paediatric settings in Australia and New Zealand.

A new study in marmoset monkeys suggests that individual variation in genes alters our ability to regulate emotions, providing new insights that could help in the development of personalised therapies to tackle anxiety and depression.

Some individuals are at greater risk of developing anxiety and depression than others and this depends in part upon the interaction between our genes and our environment, such as stressful or adverse events in our lives. Moreover, some of those who develop anxiety or depression may respond better to treatment while others struggle to benefit.

A team of Penn State and University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine researchers is attempting to answer a question that has long puzzled experts: Why do some individuals suffer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing trauma, and others do not?

The research, led by Nanyin Zhang, professor of biomedical engineering and Lloyd & Dorothy Foehr Huck Chair in Brain Imaging at Penn State, explores whether individual vulnerability to PTSD is due to pre-existing conditions or to a response to trauma exposure.

Teenagers who can describe their negative emotions in precise and nuanced ways are better protected against depression than their peers who can't. That's the conclusion of a new study about negative emotion differentiation, or NED--the ability to make fine-grained distinctions between negative emotions and apply precise labels-- published in the journal Emotion.

The application of large enough magnetic fields results in the disruption of superconducting states in materials even at drastically low temperature, thereby changing them directly into insulators--or so was traditionally thought. Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), The University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors: going from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator.

For years, researchers have documented both gastrointestinal issues and problematic behaviors, such as aggression, in many children with autism spectrum disorder.

Researchers from the University of Missouri have now found that both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors might indicate gastrointestinal distress in children and adolescents with autism.

Contrary to popular belief, using social media and the internet regularly could improve mental health among adults and help fend off serious psychological distress, such as depression and anxiety, finds a new Michigan State University study.

Communication technologies and social media platforms make it easier to maintain relationships and access health information, which could explain it, says Keith Hampton, professor of media and information at Michigan State University.

So why the bad rap?

CINCINNATI--Researchers suggest a possible cell-based therapy to stimulate lung development in fragile premature infants who suffer from a rare condition called Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which in the most severe cases can lead to lifelong breathing problems and even death.

Policies to improve air quality in the UK over the past 40 years have led to significant reductions in pollution and associated mortality rates, a new study has found.

Students think it is instructors' responsibility to ensure they don't surf the web in class, according to a new study.

In a recent mixed-method study, researchers from the University of Waterloo surveyed 478 undergraduates and 36 instructors on their perception of technology use in class.

The survey found that nine per cent of students thought course materials that could be seen on other students' laptops were distracting, whereas 49 per cent thought that non-course materials on other students' screens were distracting.

A prevailing theory in neuroscience holds that people make decisions based on integrated global calculations that occur within the frontal cortex of the brain.

However, Yale researchers have found that three distinct circuits connecting to different brain regions are involved in making good decisions, bad ones and determining which of those past choices to store in memory, they report June 25 in the journal Neuron.