Brain

Indigenous peoples in Canada have high rates of psychological distress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, and these mental health issues are linked to income inequalities, found a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Suicide is a major cause of death among First Nations, Métis and Inuit people, with rates 2 to 3 times higher than in non-Indigenous Canadians.

FINDINGS

A study has found that out-of-pocket health care spending and medical debt are substantially higher when adults have a history of adverse childhood experiences. The study showed that household medical costs were 30 percent higher, and the likelihood of medical debt was doubled, when an adult had lived through three or more adverse experiences during childhood.

BACKGROUND

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found that type IgG antibodies play an unexpected role in atherosclerosis. A study on mice shows that the antibodies stabilise the plaque that accumulates on the artery walls, which reduces the risk of it rupturing and causing a blood clot. It is hoped that the results, which are published in the journal Circulation, will eventually lead to improved therapies.

A new study published in Infant and Child Development indicates that complications during birth may increase the risk that children will develop social anxiety by their pre-teen years.

In an Addiction analysis of relevant published studies, investigators found some evidence for a positive association between anxiety during childhood and adolescence with later alcohol use disorders.

Academics at the University of Bristol have taken the first long-term look at potential factors that could lead to suicide attempts in high-risk young people.

Published in The Lancet Psychiatry today (Thursday 14 March) researchers examined questionnaire data from 16 and 21 year olds who are part of Bristol's Children of the 90s study, concentrating on those who'd thought about suicide.

A report out today examines the factors that influence 'maths anxiety' among primary and secondary school students, showing that teachers and parents may inadvertently play a role in a child's development of the condition, and that girls tend to be more affected than boys.

The report was funded by the Nuffield Foundation, with additional support from the James S McDonnell Foundation.

WASHINGTON -- In late 2018, the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft arrived at Bennu, the asteroid it will be studying and sampling over the next several years.

Too much time in front of the bedroom TV deprives the child of more enriching developmental activities and may explain, in part, less optimal body mass, poor eating habits and socio-emotional difficulties as a teenager, says the study, published Dec. 26 in Pediatric Research.

"The early years are a critical period in a child's development," said study author Linda Pagani, a professor at UdeM's School of Psycho-Education, who will be discussing her study today at the International Convention of Psychological Science, in Paris.

Incorporating the arts--rapping, dancing, drawing--into science lessons can help low-achieving students retain more knowledge and possibly help students of all ability levels be more creative in their learning, finds a new study by Johns Hopkins University.

The findings were published on Feb. 7 in Trends in Neuroscience and Education and support broader arts integration in the classroom.

The Transcendental Meditation® technique helped to reduce "compassion fatigue" and burnout in a group of 27 nurses while also improving resilience according to a study published today in Journal for Nurses in Professional Development.

Standardized assessments showed a significant improvement after four months of practice.

Teen-agers and young adults who intentionally hurt themselves engage in such behavior based, in part, on how they experience pain and their emotional distress, according to a Rutgers study.

The study, which examines physical pain in non-suicidal self-injuries, appeared online ahead of in print in the March 2019 issue of the journal Clinical Psychological Science.

Women who work more than 55 hours a week are at a higher risk of depression but this is not the case for men, according to a new UCL-led study with Queen Mary University of London.

The study of over 20,000 adults, published today in the BMJ's Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, found that after taking age, income, health and job characteristics into account, women who worked extra-long hours had 7.3% more depressive symptoms than women working a standard 35-40 week. Weekend working was linked to a higher risk of depression among both sexes.

New research from King's College London suggests one in 13 young people in the UK have had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) before reaching age 18. The first UK-based study of its kind, published in The Lancet Psychiatry, found 31% of young people had a traumatic experience during childhood, and those who were exposed to trauma were twice as likely as their peers to have a range of mental health disorders.

Superficial but deliberate changes in someone’s facial appearance – such as a new hairstyle or complexion - are surprisingly effective in identity deception, new research suggests.

In the study, led by researchers at the universities of York and Huddersfield, participants were often fooled by disguises when asked to judge whether two photographs showed the same or different people.