Brain

Madrid, Spain: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more likely to develop poor respiratory health based on lung function tests, according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress. [1]

PCOS affects how a woman's ovaries work because of a hormone imbalance. It can cause irregular periods, infertility and variety of other symptoms. PCOS is believed to affect almost one in six women and often runs in families.

A paradox of food insecurity in wealthy countries is its association with excess weight. Now, a study led by researchers at UC San Francisco finds that young adults in the United States who are food insecure not only are slightly more likely to be obese, they are significantly more likely to suffer from disorders associated with high body mass index, as well as obstructive airway diseases like asthma.

Two MIT professors have found a strong relationship between students' grades and how much sleep they're getting. What time students go to bed and the consistency of their sleep habits also make a big difference. And no, getting a good night's sleep just before a big test is not good enough -- it takes several nights in a row of good sleep to make a difference.

Washington, DC, October 1, 2019 - Grief reactions in traumatically bereaved youth, particularly in relation to a shared trauma, constitute a unique aspect of psychological distress. A new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reports that this disorder warrants separate clinical attention.

Chemical engineers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, Germany, have developed the first molecular motor that enables an eight-shaped movement.

A monthly, 40-minute phone call from a non-clinical professional may suppress or reverse the trajectory of depression so frequently experienced by family members caring for patients with dementia at home, according to a study led by researchers at UC San Francisco.

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- Relaxing is supposed to be good for the body and soul, but people with anxiety may actively resist relaxation and continue worrying to avoid a large jump in anxiety if something bad does happen, according to Penn State research.

In a new study, the researchers found that people who were more sensitive to shifts in negative emotion -- quickly moving from a relaxed state to one of fear, for example -- were more likely to feel anxious while being led through relaxation exercises.

Barcelona, Spain, 30 September 2019 - Patients with mesothelioma may gain similar benefit from immunotherapy as chemotherapy, and good responders may provide important clues to novel treatment for the thousands of new cases each year. Data from the PROMISE-meso trial presented at the ESMO Congress 2019 highlight the need to understand the biological mechanisms whereby mesothelioma, which is incurable, adapts to immunotherapy in some patients but not in others, resulting in variations in treatment response. (1,2)

Madrid, Spain: Professional drivers working in congested cities are exposed to black carbon levels that are on average a third higher than would be experienced at a busy roadside, according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress. [1]

The research also found that taxi drivers experience the highest exposures to black carbon, an indicator of diesel engine fumes, compared to couriers, truck drivers, waste removal and emergency service workers.

Barcelona, Spain, 28 September 2019 - New data have shown that first-line treatment with a combination of two immunotherapy drugs improves overall survival in a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to chemotherapy. (1)

RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- A team of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, has found the concentration of metals in electronic cigarette aerosols -- or vapor -- has increased since tank-style electronic cigarettes were introduced in 2013.

ITHACA, N.Y. - Gallium nitride, a semiconductor that revolutionized energy-efficient LED lighting, could also transform electronics and wireless communication, thanks to a discovery made by Cornell researchers.

Their paper, "A Polarization-Induced 2D Hole Gas in Undoped Gallium Nitride Quantum Wells," was published Sept. 26 in Science.

The terms and conditions of your employment -- including your pay, hours, schedule flexibility and job security -- influence your overall health as well as your risk of being injured on the job, according to new research from the University of Washington.

The analysis takes a comprehensive approach to show that the overall pattern of employment conditions is important for health, beyond any single measure of employment, such as wages or contract type.

A new analysis of survival data for the randomized, phase III PACIFIC trial finds adding the immunotherapy cancer drug durvalumab to radiation and chemotherapy significantly decreased the recurrence of lung cancer both in the chest area and in distant sites outside the chest. The update of the landmark study that changed the standard of care for patients with stage 3 unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), was presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

Adding precisely aimed, escalated doses of radiation after patients no longer respond to immunotherapy reinvigorates the immune system in some patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), increasing progression-free survival (PFS). Findings of the phase II randomized trial were presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).