Brain

A hypothetical nuclear process known as neutrinoless double beta decay ought to be among the least likely events in the universe. Now the international EXO-200 collaboration, which includes researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, has determined just how unlikely it is: In a given volume of a certain xenon isotope, it would take more than 35 trillion trillion years for half of its nuclei to decay through this process - an eternity compared to the age of the universe, which is "only" 13 billion years old.

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Schools serving disadvantaged and minority children teach as much to their students as those serving more advantaged kids, according to a new nationwide study.

The results may seem surprising, given that student test scores are normally higher in suburban and wealthier school districts than they are in urban districts serving mostly disadvantaged and minority children.

What species is better at fighting an infection, a mouse or an elephant? Body size is one of the most noticeable differences among species, but relationships between immune defenses and body size have largely been unstudied.

WASHINGTON, D.C., September 25, 2019--Substantial school spending cuts triggered by the Great Recession were associated with sizable losses in academic achievement for students living in counties most affected by the economic downturn, according to a new study published today in AERA Open, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.

CLEVELAND, Ohio (September 24, 2019)--Thanks to increased media attention, sexual assaults occurring in the military are finally getting the attention they deserve. However, most reports involve reproductive-aged women Veterans from recent service eras. A new study confirms the problem has a long history with assaults linked to numerous mental and physical problems. Study results will be presented during The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) Annual Meeting in Chicago, September 25 to 28, 2019.

Children with asthma have a higher likelihood of also suffering from anxiety and depression, and when all three conditions are present, patients are almost twice as likely as those with asthma alone to seek care in the Emergency Room.

Highlights

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) causes motor performance deterioration due to anxiety

Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dACC reduces the performance deterioration

This method could potentially be used to help athletes and musicians overcome anxiety

Abstract

Job sharing offers a route to increase the number of women in senior leadership roles in higher education.

Research from Lancaster University Management School, published in a special issue of Social Sciences, shows the potential for job sharing to provide new routes into senior management positions and to increase female presence in the upper echelons of the sector.

Affecting as many as 30% of cancer survivors, chronic insomnia can be effectively treated with intensive cognitive-behavioral techniques, but such methods are time-consuming, costly, and limited by the availability of trained specialists. In a study published online today by the journal Cancer, investigators at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report that a single-session sleep education program for survivors can cure insomnia in many participants, and that those who don't benefit from this approach are often helped by a more extensive, but still modest, three-session program.

The impostor syndrome, a phenomenon that manifests when people feel like frauds even if they are actually capable and well-qualified, affects people both in the workplace and in the classroom. A new study reveals that perceptions of impostorism are quite common and uncovers one of the best -- and worst -- ways to cope with such feelings.

A study published today in Drugs & Aging found that older adults in Ontario with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were twice as likely to use prescription synthetic oral cannabinoids compared to older adults without COPD.

Using provincial health administrative databases, researchers found that while synthetic oral cannabinoid use was relatively low among adults over the age of 66 with COPD (0.6 per cent), this group was twice as likely to be using these drugs compared to adults of the same age without COPD (0.3 per cent).

Dads are often happier, less stressed and less tired than moms when taking care of kids, and researchers say these differences may come down to how and when childcare activities are split between parents.

In a study led by Penn State, researchers looked at childcare through the lens of a "care context." Going beyond measuring how much time mothers and fathers spend taking care of their children, the researchers also looked at the type of childcare activity, when and where it took place, who was present, and how much care was involved.

A new Canadian guideline lays out the optimal strategies for providing injectable opioid agonist treatment with prescription heroin and hydromorphone for people with severe opioid use disorder. The clinical guideline was created for a wide range of health care providers to address an urgent need for evidence-based treatment of opioid use causing overdose and death, and is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Opioid use is increasing in pregnancy as well as the general population. A "Five things to know about ..." practice article on opioid disuse in pregnancy in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) provides information on how to manage this vulnerable population.

1. Opioid use and opioid use disorders in pregnancy are rising.

2. Guidelines support universal screening for drug use, including opioids, by prenatal care providers.

WASHINGTON (September 20, 2019) - A new shock classification scheme released by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) and endorsed by the American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association, the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons was recently applied in a retrospective study analyzing patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) at the Mayo Clinic. The study was published today in early view in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC).