In 2010, Professor Patrick Kwan from Monash University's Department of Neuroscience, led an international team researching the causes and outcomes of epilepsy patients in rural China. A decade later the results indicate that at least one million Chinese people with epilepsy could be candidates for a standard operation that may leave them seizure-free.

Exposure to iodine used for medical procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may increase an infant's risk for congenital hypothyroidism (loss of thyroid function), suggests a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions. The authors found that infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism following a NICU stay had higher blood iodine levels on average than infants who had a NICU stay but had normal thyroid function. Their study appears in the Journal of Nutrition.

Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have found that they can stop the growth of pancreatic cancer cells by interfering with the way the cells store cholesterol. Their findings in mice and lab-grown pancreas models point toward a new strategy for treating the deadly disease.

PHILADELPHA-- A new study from Penn Medicine lends further evidence that the social behaviors tied to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) emerge from abnormal function of sensory neurons outside the brain.

LA JOLLA--(July 7, 2020) The human immune system is a finely-tuned machine, balancing when to release a cellular army to deal with pathogens, with when to rein in that army, stopping an onslaught from attacking the body itself. Now, Salk researchers have discovered a way to control regulatory T cells, immune cells that act as a cease-fire signal, telling the immune system when to stand down.

DURHAM, N.C. - Researchers from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) announced today that the HPTN 083 clinical trial showed that a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimen containing long-acting cabotegravir (CAB LA) injected once every 8 weeks was superior to daily oral tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for HIV prevention among cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men. The results were reported at the 23rd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2020: Virtual).

New particle formation (NPF) is a key process for haze formation, leading to the deterioration of air quality. Chemical and photochemical processes have been intensively studied over the past decades to understand their roles in NPF, but the physical process has drawn much less attention.

Observational Evidence

People who work in jobs that require less physical activity - typically office and desk-based jobs - are at a lower risk of subsequent poor cognition than those whose work is more physically active, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.

Lack of physical activity and exercise are known risk factors for major health conditions, including cognitive impairments such as memory and concentration problems. However, evidence as to whether physical activity actually protects against cognitive decline has often been mixed and inconclusive.

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a common and serious consequence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The prevalence varies depending on population and diagnostic method, but at least 5 to 10 percent of all RA patients suffer from this condition, which leads to inflammatory changes in lung tissue and pulmonary alveoli. It is accompanied by a dry cough and breathing difficulties. A severe course may lead to scarring of lung tissue, which is referred to as lung fibrosis. This may lead to a life-long dependency on oxygen supply or even a lung transplant.

A team from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the University of Barcelona (UB), in collaboration with a researcher from the Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota, have described that lysosomes and autophagy processes are active during mitosis and are necessary for a correct cell division. Lysosomes and autophagy eliminate and recycle damaged cellular components; thus, lysosomal activity sustains the correct cell function and its dysregulation is associated to several diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, or disorders associated with aging.

Amid news that the United States has bought up virtually the entire global supply of remdesivir, a new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study outlines how the drug could save lives in countries with less hospital capacity, such as South Africa, where COVID-19 is beginning to overwhelm intensive care units (ICUs).

Recent research has suggested that remdesivir can reduce deaths from COVID-19 by as much as 30%, but has a more significant effect on how long patients need intensive care, from an average of 15 days down to an average of 11 days.

Scientists have engineered natural killer immune cells that not only kill head and neck tumour cells in mice but also reduce the immune-suppressing myeloid cells that allow tumours to evade the immune response, according to a new study in eLife.

The engineered cell therapy could be used as an alternative approach for treating cancer in patients for whom previous immunotherapy based on the activation of T cells has failed. These findings are reported by researchers at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland.

Toddlers who were obese or overweight show concerning signs of cardiovascular disease at 11-12 years of age, according to a new study led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI).

The study, published in Pediatrics, found Australian children who were obese or overweight very early in life already show evidence by age 11-12 years of stiffer arteries, thickened arterial lining and are a high risk of later developing metabolic syndrome. This worsened the longer these young children were overweight or obese.

Early infections of influenza A can help predict how the virus will affect people across different ages in the future and could impact the effectiveness of flu vaccines, says a new study published today in eLife.

The findings may help improve estimates of both the age-specific risk of acquiring seasonal influenza infections and vaccine effectiveness in similarly vaccinated populations.