Body

ALEXANDRIA, VA - The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation published the Clinical Practice Guideline: Ménière's Disease today in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Ménière's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that includes episodes of vertigo with possible hearing loss, ringing or buzzing in the ear, or ear pressure.

A drug used for cancer therapy has shown promise in reversing kidney damage caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, or lupus), according to a Yale-led study published April 8 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

"Kidney damage affects about half of the patients with lupus, sometimes leading to renal failure with a requirement for dialysis or transplantation," said Joe Craft, the Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine (rheumatology) and professor of immunobiology. "Finding what causes that damage is extremely important."

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who currently smoke may have higher levels of a molecule, called angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE-2), in their lungs according to a study published in the European Respiratory Journal today (Thursday). [1]

Previous research shows that ACE-2, which sits on the surface of lung cells, is the 'entry point' that allows coronavirus to get into the cells of the lungs and cause an infection.

The new study also shows that levels of ACE-2 in former smokers is lower than in current smokers.

New modelling research, published in The Lancet journal, suggests that China's aggressive control measures appear to have halted the first wave of COVID-19 in areas outside Hubei province, the epicentre of the epidemic. However, given the substantial risk of the virus being reintroduced from abroad, and with economic activity increasing, real-time monitoring of COVID-19 transmissibility and severity is needed to protect against a possible second wave of infection, researchers say.

Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an "off-the-shelf" artificial cardiac patch that can deliver cardiac cell-derived healing factors directly to the site of heart attack injury. In a rat model of heart attack, the freezable, cell-free patch improved recovery. The researchers also found similar effects in a pilot study involving a pig model of heart attack.

Philadelphia, March 31, 2020 - DNA sequencing is becoming a more commonplace method for detecting diseases and improving precision medicine. Because DNA sequencing does not detect all possible disease-causing mutations, RNA sequencing is often used to address this important gap. However, RNA sequencing is typically performed on clinically-accessible tissues from blood and skin and likely does not represent a complete view of the rest of the body.

Below please find link(s) of new coronavirus-related content published today in Annals of Internal Medicine. A collection of coronavirus-related content is free to the public at http://go.annals.org/coronavirus.

Chest Computed Tomography for Detection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Don't Rush the Science

DALLAS, April 8, 2020 -- The younger you start smoking, the more likely you are to smoke daily as an adult, even into your 40s, and the harder it will be to quit, according to new data from a long-standing, international study published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access journal of the American Heart Association.

What The Study Did: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed noninsulin medication for type 2 diabetes and this observational study examined postoperative death and hospital readmission among adults with type 2 diabetes who had a prescription for metformin before major surgery with those who didn't.

Authors: Christopher W. Seymour, M.D., M.Sc., of the Clinical Research, Investigation and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness Center in Pittsburgh, is the corresponding author.

A new prognostic tool predicts how long someone diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) will be able to wait before starting cancer treatment. Researchers describe what they hope will become a point-of-care resource to help improve clinical decision making in a study published today in the journal Blood.

The tragic COVID-19 pandemic is creating new awareness regarding the importance of breathing problems, pneumonia and ventilators. What many people don't realize is that without anesthesia and operating room ventilators, the millions of surgeries normally performed each year in the U.S. would be impossible.

The rate of pregnant women with opioid use disorder, or OUD, when giving birth more than quadrupled from 1999 to 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This indicates a significant public health concern related to adverse health outcomes for both mother and child. Impacts may range from preterm labor or neonatal abstinence syndrome, to adverse child welfare outcomes and early foster care placement.

Nipple-sparing mastectomy is gaining ground as a treatment or preventive measure for breast cancer, given the understandable desire among patients to preserve natural appearance as much as possible. But the precise risk of preserving the nipple is not known as the cancer can spread along mammary ducts and to the nipple. A three-dimensional picture of the nipple structure can elucidate much more clearly than conventional reconstructions whether, where, and how much the cancer has spread to the nipple.

New research has uncovered the risk factors for Fijians carrying a pneumonia-causing bacteria.

The collaborative study, led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) and the Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services, will help determine further public health interventions to prevent people carrying and transmitting the bacteria.

MCRI's Eleanor Neal said Streptococcus pneumoniae was a leading cause of childhood illness and death around the world.

Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have succeeded in restoring mobility and sensation of touch in stroke-afflicted rats by reprogramming human skin cells to become nerve cells, which were then transplanted into the rats' brains. The study has now been published in the research journal PNAS.