Body

Better care and more research into treatments for people experiencing a first manic episode are urgently needed, according to researchers at the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre.

The study, published today in The Lancet Psychiatry by a team of international experts, describes patchy and inconsistent care, widespread failure to detect bipolar disorder early enough, and a lack of guidance on how to treat people experiencing mania for the first time.

The strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is the apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (ApoE ε4). Research presented by Manish Paranjpe at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) used positron emission tomography (PET) to show that women who are ApoE ε4 carriers and already experiencing mild cognitive impairment are more susceptible than men to tau accumulation in the brain.

Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2019 Annual Meeting shows that molecular imaging with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can evaluate tuberculosis at the molecular level, effectively identifying diseased areas and guiding treatment for patients.

DENVER--Today, the research journal Obesity published the study "Development of Obesity Competencies for Medical Education: A Report from the Obesity Medicine Education Collaborative" which outlines the first set of obesity-focused competencies to improve obesity medicine education for physicians and advanced healthcare providers.

Researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, are developing a user-friendly (worn at home) vest with technology that collects data to tailor personalized therapy for patients with metastatic, somatostatin-receptor-2 positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The study was presented at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).

Selecting the best possible embryo to implant in a woman undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complicated task. As success rates for IVF have improved, many clinics now implant a single embryo during an IVF cycle -- with the goal of avoiding a multiple pregnancy -- and the responsibility of selecting the embryo falls to the embryologist. To determine the quality and viability of an embryo, embryologists typically examine specific features of the embryos using a light microscope.

(BOSTON) - The human microbiome, the vast collection of microbes that colonize the surfaces lining many of our organs and our skin - is a critical pillar sustaining our general health. At any one time, 500 to 1,000 different species of bacteria inhabit us, which together contain far more genes than our human genome. Researchers have also come to realize that no two individuals share the same microbiome, and that an individual's microbiome composition can change with diet, lifestyle, treatment with antibiotics and other drugs, and other factors.

(Boston)--A new study raises the possibility that close-range blast exposure among veterans with a genetically higher risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), may make them more susceptible to degradation of their white matter, the part of the brain made of fiber connections called axons that connect nerve cells.

Although there is evidence that genetic risk for AD may elevate the risk of neurodegeneration following traumatic brain injury, it has been unknown if blast exposure also interacts with AD disease risk to promote neurodegeneration.

BOSTON - June 24, 2019 -- A study by scientists at Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital, published today in Nature Medicine, makes a strong case that the national epidemic of food allergy is caused by the absence of certain beneficial bacteria in the human gut. "The loss of these bacteria acts as a switch that makes children susceptible to food allergy," says Talal Chatila, MD, director of the Food Allergy Program at Boston Children's and a senior author on the paper.

Scientists investigating heart failure have been limited to studying diseased heart tissue in the lab -- understandably, as people don't tend to pluck out a healthy heart for the sake of research. But now, scientists with access to unusable, yet still healthy, donor hearts have been able to investigate the genomic pillars behind the transition from healthy hearts to heart failure.

In doing so, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators have created one of the first maps to reveal gene activity and connectivity as the heart shuts down.

Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2019 Annual Meeting draws a strong link between severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and impaired coronary flow reserve, which is an early sign of the heart disease atherosclerosis. Using 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), researchers were able to noninvasively evaluate coronary microvascular function in OSA patients and use their findings to predict cardiovascular disease risk.

Young women who undergo radiation therapy to treat a pediatric brain tumor are more likely to suffer from long-term cognitive impairment than male survivors, according to a study by Georgia State University researchers.

"Some of the survivors are doing quite well, going on to graduate degrees or medical school, " said Tricia King, professor of psychology and neuroscience and senior author of the study. "Others are quite devastated by the treatments. So, there's a huge range in outcomes and we are trying to look at the various factors involved that may explain these differences."

Recent research suggests that increased visceral fat - that is body fat surrounding a number of important internal organs such as the liver, pancreas and intestines - carries the risk of cognitive impairment in later life. "Our goal was to investigate whether excess organ fat is associated with a reduction in the structural networks and storage capacity of our brain throughout its lifetime. We also wanted to find out whether this interaction can be influenced by oestradiol," said Rachel Zsido.

ANAHEIM, CA (Embargoed until 4:30 p.m. PDT, Saturday, June 22, 2019) - Researchers have discovered a novel radioligand that can effectively differentiate progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from similar brain disorders, allowing for earlier and more reliable diagnosis of the disease. Presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2019 Annual Meeting, these findings bring physicians a step closer to being able to definitively diagnose PSP with imaging rather than waiting for confirmation upon autopsy.

ANAHEIM, CA - A first-in-human Phase 1/Phase II study demonstrates that intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical imaging agent technetium-99m (99mTc) tilmanocept promises to be a safe, well-tolerated, noninvasive means of monitoring rheumatoid arthritis disease activity. At present, there is no reliable noninvasive way to directly monitor inflammation in joints of RA patients. The study was presented at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).