Body

SAN ANTONIO -- Mayo Clinic researchers will present findings at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium Dec. 10-14 in San Antonio.

New Mayo Clinic studies to be presented include:

"Women at Elevated Risk of Developing Breast Cancer May Benefit From Taking Anti-inflammatory Drugs"

Embargoed until Friday, Dec. 13, at 6 p.m. EST

Research from Mayo Clinic investigators suggest that some women with an elevated risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from taking anti-inflammatory medications.

SAN ANTONIO, TX - Results from NRG Oncology's BR005 study show that breast-conserving treatment without surgery cannot be recommended, based on the study criteria of clinical complete response, radiological complete response (rCR)/near rCR, and negative tumor bed biopsies. These findings were presented at the 2019 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held December 10-14.

The matrix shell of the HIV-1 virus may have a different shape than previously thought, and a newly proposed model has significant implications for understanding how the virus functions, according to a new study by University of Alberta scientists.

The research suggests that the HIV-1 virus is housed within a spherical matrix shell. When it infects a healthy cell, the shell fuses to the outside of the target cell and then releases the viral capsid inside where it attacks the cell.

Opioid use among psychiatric hospital patients needs to be addressed through an integrated approach to managing mental illness, pain and substance use, a study by researchers at the University of Waterloo has found.

LA JOLLA--(December 13, 2019) Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery. Now, Salk researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results, published online in Nature Metabolism on December 9, 2019, could lead to new cancer treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy.

Researchers from the University of Adelaide have made significant advances in developing a novel vaccine against Zika virus, which could potentially lead to global elimination of the disease.

The virology team, led by Professor Eric Gowans and Dr Branka Grubor-Bauk - based at the Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research and supported by The Hospital Research Foundation - has developed a vaccine that prevents Zika infection in pre-clinical models of the disease.

What The Study Did: Nearly 200 years of military records from 1819 to 2017 were used to examine suicide rates among active-duty personnel in the U.S. Army in this observational study.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

Authors: Jeffrey Allen Smith, Ph.D.,of the University of Hawaii in Hilo, is the corresponding author.

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.17448)

Problem drinkers are more likely than teetotalers and moderate drinkers to take benzodiazepines, a class of sedatives that are among the most commonly prescribed drugs -- and the most abused. When taken by heavier drinkers, benzodiazepines may heighten the risk for overdoses and accidents as well as exacerbate psychiatric conditions.

Researchers have taken a critical step toward developing a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique that can predict the effectiveness of therapy for cancerous tumors, allowing for personalized, precision treatment. The study is featured in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Neuroscientists at Lund University in Sweden have developed a new technology that engineers the shell of a virus to deliver gene therapy to the exact cell type in the body that needs to be treated. The researchers believe that the new technology can be likened to dramatically accelerating evolution from millions of years to weeks.

Several of the new revolutionary treatments that have been used clinically in recent years to treat complex diseases - such as spinal muscular atrophy and enzyme deficiency - are based on gene therapy.

Microbes living in the rectum could make a difference to the effectiveness of experimental HIV vaccines, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis. The work is published Dec. 11 in the journal mSphere.

Evidence from human and animal studies with other vaccines suggests that Lactobacillus supplements can boost production of antibodies, while treatment with antibiotics can hamper beneficial immune responses, said Smita Iyer, assistant professor at the UC Davis Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases and School of Veterinary Medicine.

TAMPA, Fla. - Precision medicine with targeted therapies has led to improved treatment options and patient outcomes. These approaches were developed by studying tumors grown in laboratories and patient samples obtained before and during their treatment. However, there is often a limited supply of patient samples to adequately study, and the samples that exist do not always tell the complete genetic story of how the patient responded to specific drugs and the reasons why they failed treatment.

New York, NY -- Dec 12, 2019 -- Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified novel genes associated with the severity of peanut allergy, as well as ways in which these genes interact with other genes during allergic reactions.

The findings, published December 12 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, could lead to better treatments for peanut allergy.

In decades of studying how neural circuits in the brain's visual cortex adapt to experience, MIT Professor Mark Bear's lab has followed the science wherever it has led, yielding the discovery of cellular mechanisms serving visual recognition memory, in which the brain learns what sights are familiar so it can focus on what's new, and of a potential therapy for amblyopia, a disorder where children born with disrupted vision in one eye can lose visual acuity there permanently without intervention. But this time his lab's latest investigation has yielded surprising new layers of mystery.

Nearly one in three foodborne outbreaks in the EU in 2018 were caused by Salmonella. This is one of the main findings of the annual report on trends and sources of zoonoses published today by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

In 2018, EU Member States reported 5 146 foodborne outbreaks affecting 48 365 people. A foodborne disease outbreak is an incident during which at least two people contract the same illness from the same contaminated food or drink.