Body

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have uncovered a novel drug target, a protein called PPP1R1B, that stops the deadly spread of pancreatic cancer, called metastasis, when inhibited in mice. Published in Gastroenterology, the findings are a first step toward a potential treatment for one of the deadliest cancers known today.

Minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged
children have significantly higher rates of COVID-19 infection, a new study led by
Children's National Hospital researchers shows. These findings, reported online August
5 in Pediatrics, parallel similar health disparities for the novel coronavirus that have been
found in adults, the authors state.

Researchers from Flinders University and the University of Adelaide studied a group of women in South Australia who have experienced anorexia nervosa for over 10 years but have not responded well to traditional treatments, are reluctant to change their practices or seek help for their disordered eating practices.

The research explores, from an anthropological perspective, how the women experienced SE-AN as profoundly embodied, representing a core part of their identity and how they got on in the world.

An online survey involving nearly 800 cigar smokers found while the majority of the people surveyed intended to quit smoking due to concerns about elevated health risks if they contracted COVID-19, more than twice as many reported they increased rather than decreased their tobacco use since the pandemic's onset.

As cases of COVID-19 rise around the world, there has been a surge in the hospitalisation of COVID-19 patients in the United States, India and Brazil. Many are concerned by the ability of the healthcare systems to cope under the strain, particularly the availability of critical resources such as ventilators.

Scientists are increasingly trying to use the body's own immune system to fight cancer. A new study by the University of Bonn and research institutions in Australia and Switzerland now shows the strategies tumor cells use to evade this attack. The method developed for this work contributes to a better understanding of the "arms race" between immune defense and disease. The results could help to improve modern therapeutic approaches. They have been published in the journal Immunity.

An international research team have discovered how to activate brown fat in humans, which may lead to new treatments for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The results of the collaboration between the Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CRCHUS) and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research (CBMR) at the University of Copenhagen were published today in Cell Metabolism.

Boston - Vitamin D supplementation does not protect against depression in middle-age or older adulthood according results from one of the largest ever studies of its kind. This is a longstanding question that has likely encouraged some people to take the vitamin.

In this study, however, "There was no significant benefit from the supplement for this purpose. It did not prevent depression or improve mood," says Olivia I. Okereke, MD, MS, of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH's Psychiatry Department.

What The Article Says: JAMA Surgery Editor Melina Kibbe, M.D., writes in this editorial: "The implications of these data demonstrating that fewer women are submitting manuscripts to JAMA Surgery during the pandemic are potentially far reaching. First and foremost, the adverse effect of the pandemic on the academic career progression of women may be significant. As publications are the currency of academia and one of the main metrics assessed for promotion and tenure, women may face future challenges in this arena.

20 percent of the middle-aged UK South Asian population may have a very severe vitamin D deficiency, a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition reports. Such deficiency can lead to health problems such as osteomalacia (softening of the bones) and other chronic diseases.

Vitamin D helps regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body, which are needed to maintain bone health. Deficiencies of the vitamin has been linked to increased risks of developing hypertension, respiratory infections, cardiovascular disease and some cancers.

Both in the periphery and the center of lung tumors, characteristic accumulations of certain white blood cells, known as macrophages, are often found. In this case they are called tumor-associated macrophages. There are two populations with opposite effects on the tumor: while one is tumor-promoting, the second macrophage population inhibits cancer growth.

A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study shows that weight loss between early adulthood and midlife lowers arthritis risk, and found no evidence of any persistent risk of arthritis for people who were heavier earlier in life and then lost weight.

The study, published in the journal Arthritis Care & Research, also estimates that nearly a quarter of arthritis cases in the U.S., corresponding to 2.7 million people, are attributable to excess weight.

Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine used a novel genetic sequencing technology to identify the genetic cause of--and a treatment for--a previously unknown severe auto inflam-matory syndrome affecting an 18-year-old girl since infancy.

New insight on differences in the brains of men and women with autism has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.

The study suggests that autistic men, but not women, have enhanced neural excitability in specific brain regions that are important for social cognition and self-reflection, and this may differentially impact their ability to navigate social situations.