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More than half of female surgeons in the UK have faced or witnessed discrimination in the workplace, suggest the results of a confidential online poll, published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Orthopaedics was seen as the most sexist of all the surgical specialties, the responses showed.

Despite women making up over half of medical school entrants in the UK, less than a third opt for a career in surgery, which is widely acknowledged to be a male-dominated environment.

As many as one in four women attending sexual and reproductive healthcare services say they are not allowed to take control of their own reproductive lives, reveals a review of the available evidence, published today in BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health.

As well as not being able to actively choose whether to use contraceptives, or start or continue with a pregnancy, this 'reproductive control' also takes the form of 'contraceptive sabotage', which includes covert removal of a condom during sex, so invalidating consent, the research shows.

Caring for preterm babies in single family rooms appears to reduce the incidence of sepsis and improve exclusive breastfeeding rates compared with traditional open ward neonatal units, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health journal.

Nevertheless, extremely preterm babies (

Facebook use linked to perceptions of worsening physical health, new research from the University of Surrey, reports.

In the first study of its kind, published today in the journal Heliyon, researchers led by Dr Bridget Dibb investigated the relationship between Facebook and perceptions of physical health. One hundred and sixty five participants, all Facebook users, were surveyed to identify levels of comparison with others on the social networking site, self-esteem rates, perceived physical health and life satisfaction.

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Jan. 8, 2019) - There's more evidence that a high-fat diet is bad for both younger males and females, but exactly how it's harmful may differ between the sexes, scientists report.

While they hypothesized that high-fat fare would be harder on males, they found that in just four weeks both young male and female rats experienced comparable increases in blood pressure.

New Rochelle, NY, January 7, 2019-An important new article reviews recently discovered properties of adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor (A2AR-D2R) and adenosine A1 receptor-dopamine D1 receptor (A1R-D1R) heteromers--both of which are main targets for caffeine--and discusses the therapeutic implications of these findings. Preclinical evidence is reviewed which indicates that caffeine and selective A2AR antagonists could be used to treat the motivational symptoms of depression as well as cognitive and emotional impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

In experiments in rats and human cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have added to evidence that a cellular protein signal that drives both bone and fat formation in selected stem cells can be manipulated to favor bone building. If harnessed in humans, they say, the protein -- known as WISP-1 -- could help fractures heal faster, speed surgical recovery and possibly prevent bone loss due to aging, injury and disorders.

Researchers at the University of Birmingham have found two biomarkers that could be used to identify a heart condition known as atrial fibrillation in patients who have three 'clinical risks'.

Cancerous tumors trick myeloid cells, an important part of the immune system, into perceiving them as a damaged part of the body; the tumors actually put myeloid cells to work helping them grow and metastasize (spread). A research team co-led by scientists at Rush University Medical Center have discovered a potential therapy that can disrupt this recruitment and abnormal function of myeloid cells in laboratory mice. The findings of their latest study were published on Dec. 19 in Nature Communications.

Factors associated with visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a Primary Health Care Service, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia