Body

WASHINGTON, D.C. (April 10, 2019) - About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide air pollution, according to a study published today by researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH). The study, based on data from 2010 to 2015, estimates that 64 percent of these new cases of asthma occur in urban areas.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting 10 - 20 per cent of people. Abdominal pain, bloating and altered bowel habit significantly affect patients' quality of life and can force them to take days off work.

The first comprehensive study of immune cell types in pre- and post-chemotherapy cancer tissues points up a host of targets for new or existing cancer drugs that could improve patients' sensitivity to both chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

With the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, there is a growing need for new treatment strategies against life threatening bacterial infections. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden and the University of Copenhagen may have identified such an alternative treatment for bacterial meningitis, a serious infection that can lead to sepsis. The study is published in Nature Communications.

Researchers from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania analyzed the largest cohort to date of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT), finding both that proton therapy was effective at reducing tumors and demonstrated minimal toxicity to surrounding organs.

The study is published online in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology.

The global burden of COPD is high, and prevalence of nonsmokers with COPD has been increasing. In a study to be presented at CHEST Congress Thailand 2019, researchers in Nagpur, India, sought to describe the characteristics of nonsmoking patients with COPD and to determine associated comorbidities and exposures.

Researchers from the University of Toronto presented a new study at CHEST Congress 2019 Thailand in Bangkok that aimed to determine the effect of authors' self-promotion on the social media site, Twitter, in regards to the dissemination of their research.

Fewer than a quarter of breast cancer patients and a third of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed between 2013 and 2014 in two states underwent genetic testing for cancer-associated mutations, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and several other organizations.

Led by the University of York's Mental Health Addictions Research Group, SCIMITAR+ is the largest ever trial to support smoking cessation among people who use mental health services. Smoking rates among people with mental health conditions are among the highest of any group having changed little over the last 20 years, while other smokers have quit. This new study demonstrates that with the right support this inequality could be a thing of the past.

Defensive compounds produced by microbes are a major source of antibiotics and other important medicines. But with resistant bugs appearing faster than potential allies, researchers are taking their search for drug candidates offshore.