Body

New Rochelle, September 11, 2018-A novel high throughput screening (HTS) assay compatible with an ion channel biosensor component was used successfully to identify selective and active small molecule modulators of G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119), a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

Sometimes kids trip and fall, and their teeth take the hit. Nearly half of children suffer some injury to a tooth during childhood. When that trauma affects an immature permanent tooth, it can hinder blood supply and root development, resulting in what is essentially a "dead" tooth.

Until now, the standard of care has entailed a procedure called apexification that encourages further root development, but it does not replace the lost tissue from the injury and, even in a best-case scenario, causes root development to proceed abnormally.

Researchers have provided new insight on the mechanics of a virus that causes severe diarrhea and sickness in young children, according to a report published in eLife.

The study, from the Autonomous University of Madrid, Carlos III Health Institute and National Center for Biotechnology, Spain, could open up new avenues for developing effective treatments for rotavirus, which commonly infects children up to five years old. It is the first paper to detail the interplay between the function and mechanical properties of a 'multilayered' virus.

Differences in the DNA within the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells, can determine the severity and progression of heart disease caused by a nuclear DNA mutation. A new study found that when a nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutation was combined with different mild variants of mitochondrial (mtDNA) in mice, the severity of heart disease was markedly different. One mtDNA variant dramatically worsened heart disease, while another mtDNA variant conferred protection from heart damage.

New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), high-intensity physical activity (HPA) and low sedentary time (ST) are all associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The study is by Jeroen van der Velde and Annemarie Koster, Maastricht University, Netherlands, and colleagues.

Doctors and nurses often prescribe antibiotics for children with cough and respiratory infection to avoid return visits, symptoms getting worse or hospitalisation. In a study published in the British Journal of General Practice today [Tuesday 11 September], researchers from the Universities of Bristol, Southampton, Oxford and Kings College London found little evidence that antibiotics reduce the risk of children with cough ending up in hospital, suggesting that this is an area in which unnecessary antibiotic prescribing could be reduced.

A recent Finnish study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä showed that adolescents with better aerobic fitness have more compliant arteries than their lower fit peers do. The study also suggests that a higher anaerobic threshold is linked to better arterial health. The results were published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology.

The diabetes online community is leading grassroots efforts focused on accelerating the development, access and adoption of diabetes-related tools to manage the disease. Researchers at University of Utah Health examined the community's online Twitter conversation to understand their thoughts concerning open source artificial pancreas (OpenAPS) technology. The results of this study are available online in the September 10 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology.

Obesity leads to cognitive impairment by activating microglial cells, which consume otherwise functional synapses in the hippocampus, according to a study of male mice published in JNeurosci. The research suggests that microglia may be a potential therapeutic target for one of the lesser known effects of this global health epidemic on the brain.

Mentally reframing pain as a pleasant experience is an effective regulation strategy that acts independently of the opioid system, finds new human research published in JNeurosci. The study supports clinical use of mental imagery techniques, such as imagining a new context or consequence of a painful event, in conjunction with pain-relieving drugs.