Body

BOSTON - (February 11, 2019) - It's well-known that exercise improves health, but understanding how it makes you healthier on a molecular level is the question researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center are answering.

After performing experiments in both humans and mice, the researchers found that exercise training causes dramatic changes to fat. Additionally, they discovered that this "trained" fat releases factors into the bloodstream that can have positive effects on health. The study was published online February 11, 2019, in Nature Metabolism.

PITTSBURGH, Feb. 11, 2019 - Every 40 seconds, someone in the United States suffers a stroke and available therapies, such as clot busting drugs or clot removal devices, are focused on limiting the extent of brain damage. Now, research from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System shows that a brain protein called UCHL1 may be critical to how nerve cells repair themselves after stroke damage.

Physicians may soon have a new way to measure the efficacy or failure of hormone therapy for breast cancer patients, according to new research published in the February issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Researchers report that positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-fluorofuranylnorprogesterone (18F-FFNP) has been found to successfully measure changes in progesterone receptor (PR) levels resulting from a short-course estrogen treatment, also known as an estradiol challenge.

The first prospective, longitudinal study investigating treatment of chronic hepatitis C with direct-acting antivirals finds that the treatment is associated with reduced risk of mortality and liver cancer, according to a study published in The Lancet. The research is the first to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals on the disease and suggests that they should be considered for all patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Every county in the United States tracks HIV cases, sequencing the virus' genome to see if it is resistant to current medications and looking for trends. More recently, local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have begun using those HIV genetic sequences to trace the virus' transmission history.

More than 70% of patients receiving surgery for hip fracture are women, yet they are less likely than men to receive geriatric care during hospitalization, or an anesthesiology consultation before surgery, found a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) http://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.180564.

Latest U.S. estimates indicate that since 1989, hundreds of thousands of women's lives have been saved by mammography and improvements in breast cancer treatment. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings point to progress made in early detection and management of breast cancer.

Philadelphia, February 11, 2019 - As marijuana legalization sweeps North America, use of the substance has been on the rise, and the public's attitude is shifting. An increasing number of people believe that "weed" is the safest recreational drug, one that carries health benefits that outweigh its risks.

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Feb. 11, 2019) - When a car crash or explosion results in an optic nerve injury, eliminating an enzyme known to promote inflammation appears to aid recovery, scientists report.

They have shown for the first time in a mouse model of tough-to-treat optic nerve trauma, that removing the enzyme arginase 2, which increases with injury, decreases neuron death in the retina as well as the degeneration of nerve fibers that connect neurons to each other and ultimately the brain, they report in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience.