Body

Leonardo da Vinci's world-renowned "Mona Lisa" painting of Lisa Gherardini has captivated millions since it was created in the early 1500s, including experts in the medical community. For years, scientists and physicians have studied the discoloration of Gherardini's skin, the thickness of her neck, and her enigmatic smile to hypothesize about her health during the Renaissance time period.

Reducing the sugar content of certain foods by 2020, in line with UK government policy targets, could cut child obesity and related illness, and save the NHS in England £286 million over 10 years, suggests a study published by The BMJ today.

But these benefits could be easily lost if the targets are not fully met, or if the programme leads to unintended changes in consumer or industry behaviour, warn the researchers.

In the largest study of its kind, researchers from the Musculoskeletal Research Unit at the University of Bristol have identified the most important risk factors for developing severe infection after knee replacement. Patients who are under 60 years of age, males, those with chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, liver disease, and a higher body mass index are at increased risk of having the joint replacement redone (known as revision) due to infection.

In a new study published today in the Journal of Periodontology researchers found that using psychological techniques to communicate the risk of developing periodontal disease to patients improved dental hygiene over a three month period. It was further associated with reduced scores for gum inflammation as well.

The commonly used diabetes drug metformin could reverse the harmful thickening of heart muscle that leads to cardiovascular disease, according to a study at the University of Dundee.

Scientists led by Professor Chim Lang, Head of the Division of Molecular and Clinical Medicine at Dundee, discovered that metformin has the potential to be repurposed as a heart disease treatment in non-diabetic patients.

Bioelectronic medicine scientists at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research collaborated with counterparts from Academic Medical Center at University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands to carry out a series of pilot clinical studies to assess the effect of a novel bioelectronic stimulation. These studies show that non-invasive stimulation at the external ear improves disease symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These findings were first published today in Bioelectronic Medicine.

Philadelphia, April 17, 2019 - To improve the treatment of children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), investigators have developed a sophisticated way to analyze the microbial and metabolic contents of the gut.

(San Antonio, April 17, 2019) -- Only about one in four people diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) survive five years after the initial diagnosis. To improve that survival rate, researchers at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center created an online atlas to identify and classify protein signatures present at AML diagnosis.

LA JOLLA, CALIF. - April 17, 2019 - Lying within our muscles are stem cells, invisible engines that drive the tissue's growth and repair. Understanding the signal(s) that direct muscle stem cells to spring into action could uncover new ways to promote muscle growth. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood.

Offering universal late pregnancy ultrasounds at 36 weeks' gestation eliminates undiagnosed breech presentation of babies, lowers the rate of emergency caesarean sections, and improves the health of mothers and babies. These are some of the conclusions of the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study published this week in PLOS Medicine by David Wastlund of the University of Cambridge, UK, and colleagues.