Earth

LIVERMORE, Calif. -- New insights about how to understand and ultimately control the chemistry of ignition behavior and pollutant formation have been discovered in research led by Sandia National Laboratories. The discovery eventually will lead to cleaner, more efficient internal combustion engines.

"Our findings will allow the design of new fuels and improved combustion strategies," said Nils Hansen, Sandia researcher and lead author of the research. "Making combustion cleaner and more efficient will have a huge impact, reducing energy use around the globe."

A genome-wide search in thousands of children in the UK and Netherlands has revealed genetic variants associated with differing levels of protective antibodies produced after routine childhood immunizations. The findings, appearing June 11 in the journal Cell Reports, may inform the development of new vaccine strategies and could lead to personalized vaccination schedules to maximize vaccine effectiveness.

Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University of Munich, working in collaboration with researchers at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and the University Hospital Heidelberg, have for the first time succeeded in conquering a chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus in a mouse model. The team showed in its publication, that T-cell therapy can provide a permanent cure. Up to now it has not been possible to fully control the virus. Their findings have now been published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Smalleye stingrays are the largest marine stingrays on record, reaching disc widths of up to 222 cm, and yet almost nothing is known about them. Scientists from the Marine Megafauna Foundation have for the first time used photo IDs to study this elusive animal in southern Mozambique, one of the only locations where it is regularly seen in the wild. Their findings are published today in the journal PeerJ.

Food stored in warm and humid conditions gets moldy very quickly und thus becomes inedible or even toxic. To prevent this, we use refrigerators and freezers as well as various other methods of preservation. Animals do not have such technical appliances and therefore need to find other ways to preserve food. The European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary wasp species whose females hunt honey bees, has evolved a successful method of food preservation. A female takes up to five honey bees into its brood cells where they serve as food for a young beewolf.

The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923?base pairs. The human mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), for example, comprises 16,569 base pairs.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northern Indian Ocean and took the temperature of Tropical Cyclone Vayu as it moved northward in the Arabian Sea. NASA found the storm intensifying/ Warnings are now in effect for India's Gujarat coast.

Infrared light enables NASA to take the temperatures of clouds and thunderstorms that make up tropical cyclones. The stronger the storms are indicate that they extend high into the troposphere and have cold cloud top temperatures.

If you were able to stand on the bottom of the seafloor and look up, you would see flakes of falling organic material and biological debris cascading down the water column like snowflakes in a phenomenon known as marine snow.

Recent disasters like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, however, have added a new element to this natural process: oil.

During these events, the natural marine snow interacts with oil and dispersants to form what's known as marine oil snow as it sinks from the surface through water column to the seafloor sediments.

Researchers at North Carolina State University have found that the oxide ceramic material lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) retains its magnetic properties in atomically thin layers if it is "sandwiched" between two layers of a different ceramic oxide, lanthanum strontium chromium oxide (LSCO). The findings have implications for future use of LSMO in spintronic-based computing and storage devices.

DURHAM, N.C., June 11, 2019 - Burt's Bees, a leading provider of personal care products committed to natural skin care solutions, today announced research supporting new findings related to the skin's composition and the role of nature-based regimens to protect the skin against common environmental stressors. The studies will be presented at the 24th World Congress of Dermatology (WCD) Meeting in Milan, Italy, June 10-15, 2019.

These latest research findings from Burt's Bees highlight:

The protective abilities of botanical antioxidants in photo-aging and UV protection

WASHINGTON - Nitrate pollution of U.S. drinking water may cause up to 12,594 cases of cancer a year, according to a new peer-reviewed study by the Environmental Working Group.

For the groundbreaking study, published today in the journal Environmental Research, EWG scientists estimated the number of cancer cases in each state that could be attributed to nitrate contamination of public water systems, largely caused by farm runoff containing fertilizer and manure. They also estimated the costs of treating those cases at up to $1.5 billion a year.

A new paper in The Condor: Ornithological Applications, published by Oxford University Press, finds that some songbird species benefit from the spread of fracking infrastructure while others decrease in population.

The shale gas industry has grown rapidly in recent years and its resulting infrastructure can have negative consequences for native wildlife communities. While other studies have documented negative impacts of these developments on birds and their habitats, few have described variability among species in their spatial responses to fracking.

CLEVELAND--Studying the sediment of a mountain river can reveal thousands of years or more of a waterway's history, including new threats from more frequent wildfires and increased precipitation brought by climate change.

And understanding those challenges may provide insight into other waterways, including the Cuyahoga River.

The prime predators of the Baltic Sea at the top of the food web are losing weight, according to a new study that links the deteriorating health of gray seals and cod with changes in bottom-living crustaceans, isopods and amphipods.

"It is important that you understand how the food web works when managing a fishery. It is not enough to manage how the fish and fisheries are changing. The availability and quality of food is at least as important", says Lena Bergström, researcher at the Department of Aquatic Resources at the Swedish Agricultural University.

University of Colorado Boulder researchers have developed nanobio-hybrid organisms capable of using airborne carbon dioxide and nitrogen to produce a variety of plastics and fuels, a promising first step toward low-cost carbon sequestration and eco-friendly manufacturing for chemicals.

By using light-activated quantum dots to fire particular enzymes within microbial cells, the researchers were able to create "living factories" that eat harmful CO2 and convert it into useful products such as biodegradable plastic, gasoline, ammonia and biodiesel.