Tech

Anyone who is injured hopes for a speedy recovery. But wounds that heal too quickly can heal badly: if the concentration of certain growth factors becomes too high and the healing process overshoots the mark, then bulging (in technical jargon: hypertrophic) scars form and even the surrounding skin loses some of its elasticity. This is the conclusion that Sabine Werner, at the Institute for Molecular Health Sciences, and Edoardo Mazza, at the Institute for Mechanical Systems, and their two research groups have reached following joint investigations.

Complex interactions

Researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw, ETH in Zurich and the University of Cambridge have synthesized and analysed active microparticles self-propelling in a fluid and reversing their propulsion direction depending on the wavelength of illuminating light. A research article summarising their work has recently been published in Nature Communications.

An international team of researchers led by researchers from ITMO University announced the development of the world's most compact semiconductor laser that works in the visible range at room temperature. According to the authors of the research, the laser is a nanoparticle of only 310 nanometers in size (which is 3,000 times less than a millimeter) that can produce green coherent light at room temperature. The research article was published in ACS Nano.

Scientists from IFJ PAN in cooperation with researchers from the Nara Women's University (Japan) and the Jagiellonian University (Poland) took another important step towards building a functional quantum computer. Using material containing terbium ions and dedicated experimental tools, they performed a detailed analysis of dynamic magnetic properties in individual molecular magnets concerning their orientation in a magnetic field. Discovered strong anisotropy of these properties is vital in the construction of molecular electronics components.

The ever-worsening global environmental crisis, coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels, has motivated scientists to look for clean energy sources. Hydrogen (H2) can serve as an eco-friendly fuel, and hydrogen generation has become a hot research topic. While no one has yet found an energy-efficient and affordable way to produce hydrogen on a large scale, progress in this field is steady and various techniques have been proposed.

Researchers from Monash University and the CSIRO have set a record for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) using technology that resembles a sponge filled with tiny magnets.

Using a Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) nanocomposite that can be regenerated with remarkable speed and low energy cost, researchers have developed sponge-like technology that can capture carbon dioxide from a number of sources, even directly from air.

Low-dose aspirin significantly lowers cardiovascular disease risk but increases the risk of bleeding, according to a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

Investigators conducted the review because the overall balance between risks and benefits of taking aspirin has been unclear. The team pooled information from analyses of all relevant observational studies and randomized controlled trials.

A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) study indicates that breast cancer surgery is safe for patients who are older than 70 years of age, but age can influence the decision to undergo surgery.

The quest to discover how new diseases - such as Covid-19 - emerge and spread in response to global land-use change driven by human population expansion still contains "major gaps", researchers have claimed.

A team of experts from the University of Exeter has conducted a major study of how land-use changes, such as deforestation and urbanisation, influence the spread of diseases from mammals to humans.

Most new viruses and other pathogens that arise in humans are transmitted from other animals, as in the case of the virus that has caused Covid-19.

Washington, DC - June 2, 2020 - To protect medical laboratory personnel from infection when testing clinical samples for SARS-CoV-2, most laboratories inactivate the virus before testing. , The effect of inactivation on the detection of results had not been determined, but the rate of false negatives for one time testing of inactivated virus has been estimated to range from 30% to 50%.

A collaboration between Colorado State University and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign resulted in a new, 3D imaging technique to visualize tissues and other biological samples on a microscopic scale, with potential to assist with cancer or other disease diagnoses.

Neutrons - Deuterium shuffle

Scientists have found a new method to strategically add deuterium to benzene, an aromatic compound commonly found in crude oil. When applied to the active ingredient of drugs to incorporate deuterium, it could dramatically improve the drugs' efficacy and safety and even introduce new medicines.

INDIANAPOLIS -- In a peer-reviewed commentary published in npj Digital Medicine, experts from Regenstrief Institute, Mayo Clinic and The Pew Charitable Trusts write that matching patient records from disparate sources is not only achievable, but fundamental to stem the tide of the current pandemic and allow for fast action for future highly contagious viruses.

An interdisciplinary team from Tel Aviv University, led by Prof. Oded Rechavi of TAU's George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Prof. Noam Mizrahi of TAU's Department of Biblical Studies, in collaboration with Prof. Mattias Jakobsson of Uppsala University in Sweden, the Israel Antiquities Authority and Prof. Christopher E. Mason of Weill Cornell Medicine, has successfully decoded ancient DNA extracted from the animal skins on which the Dead Sea Scrolls were written.

University of Alberta computing scientists are developing an app to aid health-care staff to assess and manage pain in patients suffering from dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases.

"The challenge with understanding pain in patients with dementia is that the expressions of pain in these individuals are often mistaken for psychiatric problems," said Eleni Stroulia, professor in the Department of Computing Science and co-lead on the project. "So we asked, how can we use technology to better understand the pain of people with dementia?"