Tech

MANHATTAN, KANSAS -- An analysis of more than 200,000 spiral galaxies has revealed unexpected links between spin directions of galaxies, and the structure formed by these links might suggest that the early universe could have been spinning, according to a Kansas State University study.

Scientists with NASA's first asteroid sample return mission, OSIRIS-REx, are gaining a new understanding of asteroid Bennu's carbon-rich material and signature "spinning-top" shape. The team, led by the University of Arizona, has discovered that the asteroid's shape and hydration levels provide clues to the origins and histories of this and other small bodies.

A paper recently published online in the journal Chest reports on a study of the palliative ventilator withdrawal (PVW) procedure performed in intensive care units (ICU) at end of life. The study's goal was to determine the level of distress patients experience and identify treatments that could bring relief.

AUSTIN, Texas -- A new analysis of COVID-19 outbreaks in 58 cities has found that places that took longer to begin implementing social distancing measures spent more time with the virus rapidly spreading than others that acted more quickly.

A new UC San Francisco study has pinpointed a specific pattern of brain waves that underlies the ability to let go of old, irrelevant learned associations to make way for new updates. The research is the first to directly show that a particular behavior can be dependent on the precise synchronization of high-frequency brain waves in different parts of the brain, and might open a path for developing interventions for certain psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia.

NEW YORK, NY (June 1, 2020) - A new study published today in Neuron led by The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute's Valentina Fossati, PhD, creates astrocytes - an integral support cell in the brain - from stem cells and shows that in disease-like environments, these normally helpful cells can turn into neuron-killers.

Rockville, MD (June 1, 2020) - A new study of children and teens found that more than 25% of the calories they consume were considered empty - those from added sugars and solid fats. The top sources of these empty calories were soft drinks, fruit drinks, cookies and brownies, pizza, and ice cream.

ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Adults and children with type 1 diabetes will spend an average of $2,500 a year out-of-pocket for health care - but insulin isn't always the biggest expense - new research suggests.

While out-of-pocket costs for insulin was substantial, it accounted for just 18% of total out-of-pocket expenses for health care, according to the findings in JAMA Internal Medicine.

In fact, insulin accounted for less out-of-pocket spending than diabetes-related supplies, such as insulin pumps, syringes, and continuous glucose monitors.

Professor Fabien Sorin and doctoral assistant Andreas Leber, at the Laboratory of Photonic Materials and Fibre Devices (FIMAP) in EPFL's School of Engineering, have developed a technology that can be used to detect a body's movements - and a whole lot more. "Imagine clothing or hospital bed sheets capable of monitoring your breathing and physical gestures, or AI-powered textiles that allow humans to interact more safely and intuitively with robots" says Leber. "The flexible transmission lines that we've developed can do all of this."

Stretching, pressure and torque

Carbon nanotube transistors are a step closer to commercial reality, now that MIT researchers have demonstrated that the devices can be made swiftly in commercial facilities, with the same equipment used to manufacture the silicon-based transistors that are the backbone of today's computing industry.

CAMBRIDGE, MA -- Inspired by the Japanese art of paper cutting, MIT engineers have designed a friction-boosting material that could be used to coat the bottom of your shoes, giving them a stronger grip on ice and other slippery surfaces.

The researchers drew on kirigami, a variation of origami that involves cutting paper as well as folding it, to create the new coating. Laboratory tests showed that when people wearing kirigami-coated shoes walked on an icy surface, they generated more friction than the uncoated shoes.

Professor Fabien Sorin and doctoral assistant Andreas Leber, at the Laboratory of Photonic Materials and Fibre Devices (FIMAP) in EPFL's School of Engineering, have developed a technology that can be used to detect a body's movements - and a whole lot more. "Imagine clothing or hospital bed sheets capable of monitoring your breathing and other vital movements, or AI-powered textiles that allow robots to interact more safely and intuitively with humans" says Leber. "The soft transmission lines that we've developed open the door to all of this."

Stretching, pressing and twisting

A few minutes into the life of the universe, colliding emissions of light energy created the first particles of matter and antimatter. We are familiar with the reverse process--matter generating energy--which occurs in an atomic bomb, for example, but it has been difficult to recreate that critical transformation of light into matter.

Roboticists at the University of California San Diego have developed flexible feet that can help robots walk up to 40 percent faster on uneven terrain such as pebbles and wood chips. The work has applications for search-and-rescue missions as well as space exploration.

"Robots need to be able to walk fast and efficiently on natural, uneven terrain so they can go everywhere humans can go, but maybe shouldn't," said Emily Lathrop, the paper's first author and a Ph.D. student at the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego.

A research group led by Kobe University's Professor MATOBA Osamu (Organization for Advanced and Integrated Research) has successfully created 3D fluorescence and phase imaging of living cells based on digital holography (*1). They used plant cells with fluorescent protein markers in their nuclei to demonstrate this imaging system.