Tech

Researchers have developed artificial 'chameleon skin' that changes colour when exposed to light and could be used in applications such as active camouflage and large-scale dynamic displays.

The material, developed by researchers from the University of Cambridge, is made of tiny particles of gold coated in a polymer shell, and then squeezed into microdroplets of water in oil. When exposed to heat or light, the particles stick together, changing the colour of the material. The results are reported in the journal Advanced Optical Materials.

New research has found that in 15 major cities in the global south, almost half of all households lack access to piped utility water, affecting more than 50 million people. Access is lowest in the cities of sub-Saharan Africa, where only 22% of households receive piped water.

The research also found that of those households that did have access, the majority received intermittent service. In the city of Karachi in Pakistan, the city's population of 15 million people received an average piped water supply of only three days a week, for less than three hours.

OAKLAND, CA - California leads the nation in the adoption of rooftop solar systems, but information on which communities do, and do not, benefit from these installations has been limited to broad income classifications and anecdotal observations. Now, the data is in: The adoption of distributed solar - rooftop installations as opposed to industrial-scale operations like solar farms - is closely correlated with socioeconomic status as well as with health, environmental and demographic indicators.

Despite years of research, the brain still contains broad areas of unchartered territory. A team of scientists, led by neuroscientists from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and University of Sydney, recently found new evidence revising the traditional view of the primate brain's visual system organization using data from marmosets. This remapping of the brain could serve as a future reference for understanding how the highly complex visual system works, and potentially influence the design of artificial neural networks for machine vision.

BINGHAMTON, N.Y. -- Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York researchers have found a way to improve the performance of tiny sensors that could have wide-reaching implications for electronic devices we use every day.

The study finds a more reliable way to use actuators that control MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), which are microscopic devices with moving parts that are often produced in the same way as electronics.

Barely hidden from his study participants, William Jou, a former graduate student in mechanical engineering at Stanford University, pulled off a ruse straight out of The Wizard of Oz. Except, instead of impersonating a great and powerful wizard, Jou pretended to be an autonomous sink. He did this to test whether a sink that adapts to personal washing styles could reduce water use.

A team of engineers has developed a transistor made from linen thread, enabling them to create electronic devices made entirely of thin threads that could be woven into fabric, worn on the skin, or even (theoretically) implanted surgically for diagnostic monitoring. The fully flexible electronic devices could enable a wide range of applications that conform to different shapes and allow free movement without compromising function, the researchers say.

Cells regularly go through a process called autophagy - literally translated as 'self-eating' - which helps to destroy bacteria and viruses after infection.

When it works, this process counteracts neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia and Huntington's Disease, by getting rid of unwanted proteins and their resultant harm to cells.

But when autophagy fails or defects occur, it can give rise to such conditions.

Irvine, Calif. -- Scientists from the University of California, Irvine School of Biological Sciences have discovered how to forestall Alzheimer's disease in a laboratory setting, a finding that could one day help in devising targeted drugs that prevent it.

The researchers found that by removing brain immune cells known as microglia from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid plaques - the hallmark pathology of AD - never formed. Their study will appear Aug. 21 in the journal Nature Communications.

A new DNA test to detect chlamydia infection in koalas which can be run in the field and gives on-the-spot results within 30 minutes has been developed in a research collaboration between researchers from Queensland University of Technology (QUT) and University of Queensland (UQ) in Brisbane, Australia.

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

ATHENS, Ohio (Aug. 20, 2019) - A team of scientists from Ohio University, Argonne National Laboratory, Universitié de Toulouse in France and Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan led by OHIO Professor of Physics Saw-Wai Hla and Prof. Gwenael Rapenne from Toulouse developed a molecular propeller that enables unidirectional rotations on a material surface when energized.

A few summers ago throngs of people began using the Pokemon Go app, the first mass-market augmented reality game, to collect virtual creatures hiding in the physical world.

For now, AR remains mostly a solo activity, but soon people might be using the technology for a variety of group activities, such as playing multi-user games or collaborating on work or creative projects. But how can developers guard against bad actors who try to hijack these experiences, and prevent privacy breaches in environments that span digital and physical space?

ATHENS, Ohio (Aug. 20, 2019)--The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has awarded Ohio University scientists Shiyong Wu and Lingying Tong a five-year $1.7 million grant to advance research on a potential prevention and treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers.

"Non-melanoma skin cancers are by far the most common type of cancer among all types of cancers--it's a huge burden for society," Wu said.

PHOENIX, Ariz. -- Aug. 20, 2019 -- Despite those velvet paintings of poker-playing dogs smoking pipes, cigars and cigarettes, our canine friends really don't use tobacco. But like many humans who have never smoked, dogs still get lung cancer.

And, like many women who develop a particular type of breast cancer, the same gene -- HER2 -- also appears to be the cause of lung cancer in many dogs, according to a promising new study of pet dogs led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of the City of Hope, and The Ohio State University.