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Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence genomes of 1.5 million species

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
An international consortium of scientists is proposing a massive project to sequence, catalog and analyze the genomes of all eukaryotic species on the planet, an undertaking the researchers say will take 10 years, cost $4.7 billion and require more than 200 petabytes of digital storage capacity. Eukaryotes include all organisms except bacteria and archaea. There are an estimated 10-15 million eukaryotic species on Earth.
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Fear of losing status, not economic hardship, drove voters in 2016 presidential election

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Data gathered in 2012 and 2016 from a nationally representative panel found that many American voters -- especially whites, males, and Christians -- felt their status threatened by growing diversity and perceived loss of US global dominance. This led America's socially dominant groups to increase their support in 2016 for the candidate who most emphasized reestablishing status hierarchies of the past: Donald Trump. Economic grievances were not found to influence voting behavior.
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Study: Girls more likely than boys to struggle with social, behavioral, academic needs

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
The more failing grades students have during eighth grade, the more likely they are to experience social-emotional learning problems, academic difficulties and behavioral problems during their freshman year in high school, University of Illinois social work professor Kevin Tan found in a new study.And despite the gender stereotype that boys are more likely to be the problem children in school, the researchers found that girls constitute the majority of youths who struggled the most academically, socially and behaviorally.
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The role of 'extra' DNA in cancer evolution and therapy resistance

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Researchers tracked genomic alterations detected in patient samples during tumor cell evolution in culture, in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models from the cultures, as well as before and after treatment in patients. In a recent paper in Nature Genetics, the team reports that tumor progression was often driven by cancer-promoting genes, known as oncogenes, on extrachromosomal pieces of DNA.
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Scientists use rocket scanner to learn how whales hear

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Researchers have used a scanner designed for rockets to collect the first-ever computed tomography (CT) scan of an entire minke whale. By combining the CT scan results with custom-developed computer simulation tools, the researchers model how the whales hear sounds produced by other whales or by human-created (anthropogenic) sources such as ship propellers.
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Meditation and aerobic exercise helps women recover after sexual assault

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Women who are sexually assaulted and suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can learn to decrease negative thoughts and enhance self-worth by a combination of meditation and aerobic exercise. A combination of mental and physical training with meditation and aerobic exercise done for one-hour twice a week over a six-week period significantly reduced post-traumatic and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence.
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Middle East energy subsidy reform updates 'patronage-based autocratic governance'

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
A series of converging trends provided political cover for the reforms of long-standing energy subsidies launched by oil-exporting states in the Middle East and North Africa, according to a new paper by an expert in the Center for Energy Studies at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy. These subsidies are thought to be an important source of legitimacy for autocratic regimes.
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Telling job seekers how many other people have applied could boost diversity

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Telling job applicants how many people applied for a job on LinkedIn - regardless of whether the number of applicants was high or low - increased the number of applications, a finding that could help companies that are seeking more diverse applicant pools, according to new research from Tufts University economist Laura Gee.
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Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy makes a window into the nanoscale

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
From energy materials to disease diagnostics, new microscopy techniques can provide more nuanced insight. Researchers first need to understand the effects of radiation on samples, which is possible with a new device developed for holding tightly sealed liquid cell samples for transmission electron microscopy.
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Researchers use 'environmental DNA' to identify killer whales in Puget Sound

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
When endangered killer whales swim through the sheltered waters of Puget Sound, they leave behind traces of 'environmental DNA' that researchers can detect as much as two hours later has found.

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Paint job transforms walls into sensors, interactive surfaces

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Walls are what they are -- big, dull dividers. With a few applications of conductive paint and some electronics, however, walls can become smart infrastructure that sense human touch, and detect things like gestures and when appliances are used. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Disney Research found that they could transform dumb walls into smart walls at relatively low cost using simple tools and techniques, such as a paint roller.
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Cigarillo packaging can influence product perception, study finds

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers surveyed 2,664 young adults who were current users, never users, or past users of little cigars and cigarillos, finding cigarillo packs with colors and containing a flavor descriptor were rated more positively for taste and smell, and health warnings didn't fully mitigate the draw of the packaging.
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Researchers identify brain mechanism linking PTSD and opioid addiction

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Researchers at Western University have shown that the recall of traumatic memories enhances the rewarding effects of morphine, shedding light on the neurobiological link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid addiction.
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Detecting Alzheimer's disease before it's too late

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
The rate at which the protein beta-amyloid accumulates into the sticky plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is already slowing by the time a patient would be considered to have preclinical AD, according to a longitudinal study of healthy adults published in JNeurosci. The research suggests that anti-amyloid therapies would be most effective before individuals reach the threshold for preclinical AD, long before the first signs of memory issues.
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A neurobiological link between PTSD and addiction

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Recalling traumatic memories enhances the rewarding effects of morphine in male rats, finds new research published in JNeurosci. These findings may help to explain the co-occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and addiction.
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Even a single mindfulness meditation session can reduce anxiety

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Mindfulness meditation programs have shown promise for the treatment of anxiety, one of the most common mental health disorders in the US. New research suggests people can begin to derive psychological and physiological benefits from the practice after a single introductory session.
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Neutrons provide insights into increased performance for hybrid perovskite solar cells

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has revealed, in real time, the fundamental mechanisms behind the conversion of sunlight into energy in hybrid perovskite materials. A better understanding of this behavior will enable manufacturers to design solar cells with significantly increased efficiency.
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Special series examines the use of pasteurized donor human milk for vulnerable infants

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
If the use of mother's own milk is contraindicated (such as with a HIV positive mothers) or if a mother is unable to produce enough milk to meet her infant's needs, pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) is the recommended alternative. In 2016, 5.25 million ounces of PDHM were distributed to hospitals caring for vulnerable infants across the United States and Canada.
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Watch your step: How vision leads locomotion

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Using new technologies to track how vision guides foot placement, researchers at the University of Texas at Austin come one step closer in determining what is going on in the brain while we walk, paving the way for better treatment for mobility impairments -- strokes, aging and Parkinson's -- and technology development -- prosthetics and robots.
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New control strategy helps reap maximum power from wind farms

Eurekalert - Apr 23 2018 - 00:04
Researchers from the University of Texas at Dallas developed a way to extract more power from the wind. The researchers used supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to filter out the effects of turbulence and apply control algorithms that can better manage the operation of wind farms. The approach has the potential to increase wind power generation by 6-7 percent with a estimated increase in revenue of more than $600 million nationwide.
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