Culture

The false promise of fracking and local jobs

The false promise of fracking and local jobs

A natural gas well in Bradford County, PA. New York has said "no thanks" to fracking but they would have brown-outs without Pennsylvania energy. Reuters

By Susan Christopherson, Cornell University

The digital economy is a source of inequality

The digital economy is a source of inequality

Servers. Servants or masters? Tom Raftery, CC BY

How creative are you? Depends where you're from

Montreal, January 27, 2015 -- With the "creative class" on the rise, many businesses are trying to capitalize on imagination and innovation. But when it comes to creative juices, some societies have a faster flow than others. That's because, as new research from Concordia University suggests, creativity is tied to culture.

Junkie culture: Age concern in largest ever study of heroin user deaths

In the largest study of opioids users ever undertaken, the researchers used records of 198,247 people in England who had been involved in drug treatment or the criminal justice system between 2005 and 2009. The data recorded 3,974 deaths and their causes during this period. Opioid users were six times more likely to die prematurely than people in the general population. Almost one in ten of these deaths were due to suicide, more than four times the rate in the general population.

Retreat of multiculturalism 'is a myth'

Perceptions of a decline in multiculturalism as a means of integrating ethnic minorities are unfounded, research led at the University of Strathclyde has found.

The study, comparing citizenship programs in four European nations - the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark - concluded that, while the term 'multiculturalism' was being less frequently used with a positive meaning, the actual public policies designed to help ethnic minorities to integrate and remake citizenship remained in place and were, in fact, being expanded.

Friends know how long you'll live, study finds

Young lovers walking down the aisle may dream of long and healthy lives together, but close friends in the wedding party may have a better sense of whether those wishes will come true, suggests new research on personality and longevity from Washington University in St. Louis.

"You expect your friends to be inclined to see you in a positive manner, but they also are keen observers of the personality traits that could send you to an early grave," said Joshua Jackson, PhD, assistant professor of psychology in Arts & Sciences.

Girls lead boys in academic achievement globally

Considerable attention has been paid to how boys' educational achievements in science and math compare to girls' accomplishments in those areas, often leading to the assumption that boys outperform girls in these areas. Now, using international data, researchers at the University of Missouri and the University of Glasgow in Glasgow, Scotland, have determined that girls outperform boys in educational achievement in 70 percent of the countries they studied--regardless of the level of gender, political, economic or social equality.

Flexible work schedules improve health and sleep for employees

Giving employees more control over their work schedules may help curb sleep deficiency, according to health researchers. About 30 percent of U.S. adults reported not regularly getting a sufficient amount of sleep, a 2012 Centers for Disease Control survey found. Sleep deficiency has been linked to increased risk of automobile crashes, chronic disease and early mortality. Improving adequate sleep within the population is a goal of Healthy People 2020, a federal initiative that sets national objectives and monitors progress concerning the health of the nation.

How to create a scientific process freed from systemic bias

Research on how science works - the science of science - can benefit from studying the digital traces generated during the research process, such as peer-reviewed publications. This type of research is crucial for the future of science and that of scientists, according to Frank Schweitzer, Chair of Systems Design at ETH Zurich, in Switzerland. Indeed, quantitative measures of scientific output and success in science already impact the evaluation of researchers and the funding of proposals.

You won't tell your manager about your mental health problem, but you'll help a coworker who does

Although nearly four in 10 workers wouldn't tell their manager if they had a mental health problem, half said that if they knew about a coworker's illness, they would desire to help, a new survey by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) shows.

The survey, headed by CAMH Senior Scientist Dr. Carolyn Dewa, reveals that workers have both negative and supportive attitudes about mental health in the workplace. The study was published in the International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.