DURHAM, N.C. -- To a mantis shrimp, walking away from a fight doesn't mean being a wimp. It means recognizing who they're up against and knowing when to bail rather than drag out a doomed battle, Duke University researchers say.

Mantis shrimp use sparring matches to decide when to fight and when to fold, finds a study published Jan. 17 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The study is part of a larger area of research that uses game theory to understand how animals resolve fights without killing each other.

California sea lions have fully rebounded under the protection of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), with their population on the West Coast reaching carrying capacity in 2008 before unusually warm ocean conditions reduced their numbers, according to the first comprehensive population assessment of the species.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Third-graders who spend a class session in a natural outdoor setting are more engaged and less distracted in their regular classroom afterward than when they remain indoors, scientists found in a new study.

This effect, reported in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, was large and occurred week after week, regardless of teacher expectations.

New Rochelle, NY, Jan. 17, 2018--In the 10th anniversary year since a bone marrow stem cell transplant cured Timothy Ray Brown of his HIV infection, despite disappointment over decreasing public desire to find a cure for HIV, Timothy Ray Brown remains optimistic that the scientific and medical communities can and will achieve this if properly funded.

The massive algal blooms caused by excess fertilizer from farms and cities running off into water supplies are having severe human health and economic consequences.

In recent years, stunning satellite images show toxic algal blooms across the world, including Lake Erie, the Baltic Sea, and the Yellow Sea. In fact, according to a recent publication in Science, nutrient pollution is the second greatest environmental threat to humanity, with economic damages from the issue costing up to $2.3 trillion annually.

Climate change has scientists worried that birds' annual migration and reproduction will be thrown out of sync with the seasons. Because birds' songs are correlated with their breeding behavior and are easily identifiable to species, monitoring birdsong can be a good way to keep tabs on this possibility, and a new study from The Condor: Ornithological Applications takes advantage of this approach to provide new baseline data for the birds of northern California.

San Francisco, Jan. 18, 2018 - Extensive lead contamination was found in lead battery recycling plants and surrounding communities in seven African countries. The contamination levels in soil ranged up to 14% lead with average concentrations of 2% lead.

Researchers at Oregon State University (OSU) are giving an ancient grain a new life: this barley is naked, but not in an indecent way.

Most barley grains are covered rather than naked. Covered varieties have a hull--or outer layer--firmly attached to the grain. The hull on 'Buck'--as in "Buck-naked"--doesn't hang on to the grain. Instead, the hulls fall off during harvest.

"Even barley geneticists try to have a sense of humor," said Patrick Hayes, crop scientist. Hayes is part of the OSU Barley Project, a team of barley enthusiasts and breeders.

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Jan. 17, 2018) - Six novel chromosomal regions identified by scientists leading a large, prospective study of children at risk for type 1 diabetes will enable the discovery of more genes that cause the disease and more targets for treating or even preventing it.

A new original research article in SLAS Discovery presents a fast, sensitive, and robust methodology for screening small molecule inhibitors against CD73/Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase, a promising target for developing anti-cancer drugs.