Millions of young children living in conditions of war, disaster, and displacement are at increased risk for developmental difficulties that can follow them throughout their lives. A new Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences article reviews what's known about the effectiveness of early childhood development programs in humanitarian settings and present a framework and recommendations for future research.

People in centenarians' close social networks are often not aware of their thoughts on end-of-life issues, a new Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study reveals.

Astronauts go through many physiological changes during their time in spaceflight, including lower muscle mass and slower muscle development. Similar symptoms can occur in the muscles of people on Earth's surface, too. In fact, it could affect everyone to some extent later in life.

"Age-related skeletal muscle disorders, such as sarcopenia, are becoming a greater concern in society," said Hiroshima University (HU) Professor and Space Bio-Laboratories Director Louis Yuge. "It is especially a big concern in Japan, where the number of aging people is increasing."

Despite substantial progress over the past half a century in understanding of how galaxies form, important open questions remain regarding how precisely the diffuse gas known as the 'intergalactic medium' is converted into stars. One possibility, suggested in recent theoretical models, is that the early phase of galaxy formation involves an epoch when galaxies contain a great amount of gas but are still inefficient at forming stars. Direct proof of such a 'Dark Phase' has been so far elusive, however --- after all, dark galaxies do not emit much visible light.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- Most renderings and reconstructions of pterodactyls and other extinct flying reptiles show a flight pose much like that of bats, which fly with their hind limbs splayed wide apart. But a new method for inferring how ancient animals might have moved their joints suggests that pterosaurs probably couldn't strike that pose.

Believe it or not -- it's in our nature to cooperate with one another, even when cheating may be more profitable. Social cooperation is common in every scale of life, from the simplest bacterial films and multicellular tissues to insect colonies and nation-states, where individuals prioritize the common good over personal gain, even when the two might conflict. Scientists have long wondered how social cooperation could evolve and persist, since "survival of the fittest" often favors cheaters that multiply at the expense of others.

"Clinical guidelines, including the Global Initiative for Asthma, state that there is no role for antibiotics in asthma exacerbations unless there is strong evidence of lung infection," said lead study author Mihaela S. Stefan, MD, PhD, a research scientist at the Institute for Healthcare Delivery and Population Science and associate professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Springfield.

Compared with fiscal austerity measures currently being implemented in Brazil, the maintenance of social protection could result in a reduction in childhood mortality by 8.6% in 2030, according to simulations published this week in PLOS Medicine by Davide Rasella of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil, and colleagues.

Third-grader Jessica was quiet in group discussions and did not see herself as a strong science student. But after an eight-week unit in school where she was able to read, write about, collect data on and even draw and photograph ladybugs for a project, she began to see herself as scientist in her own right - explaining the life stages and lifestyles of ladybugs to grownups with conviction.

Jessica became a citizen scientist.

Lithium ion batteries have come a long way since their introduction in the late 1990s. They're used in many everyday devices, such as laptop computers, mobile phones, and medical devices, as well as automotive and aerospace platforms, and others. However, lithium ion battery performance still can decay over time, may not fully charge after many charge/discharge cycles, and may discharge quickly even when idle.