Culture

Within Danish cattle breeding the semen of one breeding bull is used to inseminate a lot of cows. Due to the many inseminations one bull can thus father thousands of calves. Therefore, it is vital to determine whether breeding bulls carry hereditary diseases.

PISCATAWAY, NJ - YouTube videos featuring alcohol are heavily viewed and nearly always promote the "fun" side of drinking.

That's the finding of a study in September issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Researchers looked at 137 YouTube videos that featured alcohol brands popular with underage drinkers -- from beer to vodka to cognac. Together, the videos had been viewed nearly 97 million times.

A new study estimates employer-sponsored health plans spent at least $6 billion extra on infants born prematurely in 2013 and a substantial portion of that sum was spent on infants with major birth defects.

Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies and are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. More than 5,500 infants die each year because of birth defects. The babies who live with birth defects are at increased risk for developing many lifelong physical, cognitive and social challenges that also affect their families.

PORTLAND, Ore. - Communication breakdowns between care facilities can pave the way for outbreaks of infection, according to research on the spread of an extensively drug-resistant bacterium.

The OSU/OHSU College of Pharmacy teamed with the Oregon Health Authority and other collaborators on a two-year study of Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic pathogen associated primarily with infections among patients who have compromised immune systems and are in health care facilities.

An inexpensive biomaterial that can be used to sustainably replace plastic barrier coatings in packaging and many other applications has been developed by Penn State researchers, who predict its adoption would greatly reduce pollution.

New research conducted in mice provides evidence that highly lethal brain tumors, called high-grade gliomas, stop growing when deprived of a specific molecule naturally produced when brain cells fire. The experiments, led by a group of scientists from Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, suggest that targeting a protein called neuroligin-3 may prove beneficial in patients with these diseases. The work was published in Nature and supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the National Institutes of Health.

COLUMBIA, Mo. - Prior research has long shown that women are, on average, less risk tolerant in their financial decisions than men. This is a concern as investors with low levels of risk tolerance might have greater difficulty reaching their financial goals and building adequate retirement wealth because they are unlikely to invest in stocks. Now, a researcher from the University of Missouri has found that men and women do not think about investment risks differently. Instead, income uncertainty affects men and women differently, which leads to differences in risk tolerance.

COLUMBUS, Ohio - When the government gives citizens a personal stake in forested land, trees don't disappear as quickly and environmental harm slows down.

A new study from The Ohio State University has found that policies called "community forest concessions" have proven effective in preserving Guatemalan rainforests.

While giving forest property and management rights to residents doesn't eliminate deforestation, it appears to lower it as much as almost 8 percent compared to areas without community oversight and ownership.

Iron is essential for cells to function, but excess iron can damage cells. Accordingly, cells have sophisticated molecular mechanisms to constantly sense and adjust iron levels. Disorders of cellular iron metabolism affect, by some estimates, more than a third of the world's population. In addition to well-known disorders like anemia, caused by overall insufficient levels of iron in the human body, iron deficiency can impair brain function in the young and reduce muscle strength in adults.

Name one civilization located in the Americas that pre-dates the arrival of Europeans. You probably replied with the Aztecs, the Inca or perhaps the Maya. A new paper, published in De Gruyter's open access journal Open Archeology, by Michael E. Smith of Arizona State University shows how this view of American civilizations is narrow. It is entitled "The Teotihuacan Anomaly: The Historical Trajectory of Urban Design in Ancient Central Mexico".