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A one-way street for salt

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Barely heard of a couple of years ago, quinoa today is common on European supermarket shelves. The hardy plant thrives even in saline soils. Researchers from the University of Würzburg have now determined how the plant gets rid of the excess salt.
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Scientists make significant discovery in the fight against drug-resistant tuberculosis

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Researchers from Newcastle University and Demuris Ltd have identified that a naturally occurring antibiotic, called kanglemycin A -- related to the antibiotic rifampicin -- is active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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What can salad dressing tell us about cancer? Think oil and vinegar

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified another way the process that causes oil to form droplets in water may contribute to solid tumors, such as prostate and breast cancer. Researchers found evidence that mutations in the tumor suppressor gene SPOP contribute to cancer by disrupting a process called liquid-liquid phase separation. Liquid-liquid phase separation is seen often in nature and is the reason why oil and vinegar separate in salad dressing.
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Octopuses given mood drug 'ecstasy' reveal genetic link to evolution of social behaviors in humans

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
By studying the genome of a kind of octopus not known for its friendliness toward its peers, then testing its behavioral reaction to a popular mood-altering drug called MDMA or 'ecstasy,' scientists say they have found preliminary evidence of an evolutionary link between the social behaviors of the sea creature and humans, species separated by 500 million years on the evolutionary tree.
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Scientists grow human esophagus in lab

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Scientists working to bioengineer the entire human gastrointestinal system in a laboratory now report using pluripotent stem cells to grow human esophageal organoids. The newly published research in the journal Cell Stem Cell is the first time scientists have been able to grow human esophageal tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which can form any tissue type in the body.
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Novel biomarker found in ovarian cancer patients can predict response to therapy

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Researchers have identified an independent prognostic factor, cancer/testis antigen 45, that is associated with extended disease-free survival for women with advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with high levels of CT45 in their tumors lived more than seven times as long as patients who lacked sufficient CT45.
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What's eating these endangered orchids?

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A species of seed-feeding fly is critically damaging the seed production of multiple orchid species, as revealed by a group of Japanese researchers. If the damage caused by this fly is occurring long-term and across Japan, these already-endangered orchid species could become unable to reproduce using seeds, and their dwindling numbers will take a large hit.
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Nomadic hunter-gatherers show that cooperation is flexible, not fixed

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Why do humans cooperate? For six years, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have worked to answer this great puzzle, focusing on the Hadza, a nomadic hunter-gatherer population in Tanzania. New findings suggest that cooperation is flexible, not fixed.
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Gambling monkeys help scientists find brain area linked to high-risk behavior

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Monkeys who learned how to gamble have helped researchers pinpoint an area of the brain key to one's willingness to make risky decisions.
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Stanford study identifies stem cell that gives rise to new bone and cartilage in humans

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A decade-long effort led by Stanford University School of Medicine scientists has been rewarded with the identification of the human skeletal stem cell.
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We are bombarded by thousands of diverse species and chemicals, Stanford study finds

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Stanford scientists have measured the human 'exposome,' or the particulates, chemicals and microbes that individually swaddle us all, in unprecedented detail.
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Kiwifruit duplicated its vitamin C genes twice, 50 million and 20 million years ago

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Today's kiwifruit, a member of the Chinese gooseberry family, contains about as much vitamin C as an orange. This extra boost in vitamin C production is the result of the kiwifruit's ancestors' spontaneously duplicating their DNA in two separate evolutionary events approximately 50-57 million and 18-20 million years ago, as reported September 20 in the journal iScience.
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Researchers identify human skeletal stem cells

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Human skeletal stem cells that become bone, cartilage, or stroma cells have been isolated from fetal and adult bones. This is the first time that skeletal stem cells, which had been observed in rodent models, have been identified in humans. The researchers were also able to derive the skeletal stem cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, opening up new therapeutic possibilities. The discovery appears Sept. 20, 2018, in the journal Cell.
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MDMA (a.k.a. ecstasy) makes octopuses more social too

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
When people take MDMA, the drug popularly known as ecstasy, a rush of serotonin, dopamine, and oxytocin produces feelings of emotional closeness and euphoria, making people more interested than normal in connecting with other people. Now, researchers reporting in Current Biology on Sept. 20 have made the surprising discovery that a species of octopus considered to be primarily solitary and asocial responds to MDMA similarly: by becoming much more interested in engaging with one other.
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Why do people share? It's contagious, six-year study of Hadza people shows

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
In the modern world, people cooperate with other people including strangers all the time. We give blood, tip providers of various services, and donate to charity even though there is seemingly nothing in it for us. Now, researchers reporting in Current Biology on Sept. 20 who've studied Hadza hunter-gatherer people in Tanzania over a six-year period have new and surprising insight into why people work together.
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Few hatchery brook trout genes present in Pennsylvania watershed wild fish

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Despite many decades of annual brook trout stocking in one northcentral Pennsylvania watershed, the wild brook trout populations show few genes from hatchery fish, according to researchers who genotyped about 2,000 brook trout in Loyalsock Creek watershed, a 500-square-mile drainage in Lycoming and Sullivan counties celebrated by anglers for its trout fishing.
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Journal of Dairy Science® presents collection on calf health and management

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
The United States Department of Agriculture-National Animal Health Monitoring System (USDA-NAHMS) conducted a survey of 2,545 preweaned heifer calves across 104 dairy operations in 2014. The study, which took place in 13 states over 18 months, covered a large cross-section of management of preweaned heifer calves in the United States, and the results have been published in six new articles in the October issue of the Journal of Dairy Science.
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New way to target advanced breast cancers

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
IL1b, a member of the interleukin 1 family of cytokines (proteins released by certain cells of the immune system) drives the inflammation often found in cancer, and appears as an 'IL1 signature' in women with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. This signature can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target.
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Study: Widely used nonprofit efficiency tool doesn't work

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A recent study finds that the tool most often used to assess the efficiency of nonprofit organizations isn't just inaccurate -- it is negatively correlated with efficiency.
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New observations to understand the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

Eurekalert - Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
In the current issue of the science journal Nature, an international team of scientists presents an analysis of a series of experiments which sheds light on the nature of the phase transition after the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago.
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