Brain

Insecure childhood can make dealing with stress harder

Imagine two candidates at a high stakes job interview. One of them handles the pressure with ease and sails through the interview. The other candidate, however, feels very nervous and under-performs.

Why do some people perform better than others under emotionally stressful conditions? The clue might lie in early childhood experiences, a recent study published in the open access online journal, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience found.

A new key in fighting Kennedy's disease

EAST LANSING, Mich. -- If a disease affects motoneurons, cells that control voluntary muscle activity, researchers should focus their efforts on motoneurons to find potential treatments, right?

Not always.

What your choice of smartphone says about you

Choice of smartphone provides valuable information about its owner.

This is one of the findings of a doctoral study conducted by Heather Shaw, from University of Lincoln's School of Psychology. She is presenting her work today, Thursday 1 September, to the British Psychological Society Social Psychology Section annual conference in Cardiff.

Miss Shaw and her fellow researchers conducted two studies of personality differences between iPhone and Android smartphone users. Lancaster University was also involved in the study.

New study finds connection between chronic pain and anxiety disorders

New research provides insight into a long-observed, but little-understood connection between chronic pain and anxiety and offers a potential target for treatment. The study's findings, published as an Article in Press in Biological Psychiatry, show that increased expression of PACAP - a peptide neurotransmitter the body releases in response to stress - is also increased in response to neuropathic pain and contributes to these symptoms.

Blood thirsty brains

Blood thirsty brains

In a new research collaboration between the University of Witwatersrand and the University of Adelaide, previously held views on the evolutionary development of the human brain are being challenged. The findings of their studies, published today in the Royal Society Open Science*, unseats previous theories that the progression of human intelligence is simply related to the increase in size of the brain.

Bipolar adolescents continue to have elevated substance use disorder risk as young adults

A follow up to a previous study finding an association between adolescent bipolar disorder and the incidence of cigarette smoking and substance use disorder finds that risk was even greater five years later, particularly among those with persistent bipolar symptoms. The report from a team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, also finds evidence that the presence of conduct disorder, in combination with bipolar disorder, may be the strongest influence on the risk of smoking and substance use disorder.

New species of pterosaur discovered in Patagonia

New species of pterosaur discovered in Patagonia

Scientists today announced the discovery of a new species of pterosaur from the Patagonia region of South America. The cranial remains were in an excellent state of preservation and belonged to a new species of pterosaur from the Early Jurassic. The researchers have named this new species 'Allkauren koi' from the native Tehuelche word 'all' for 'brain', and 'karuen' for 'ancient'.

WSU researcher finds mechanism affecting alcohol consumption

PULLMAN, Wash.--A Washington State University researcher has found a mechanism that strongly influences whether or not an animal is likely to drink a lot of alcohol.

"It takes them from drinking the equivalent of three to four units of alcohol in one to two hours, down to one to two," said David Rossi, a WSU assistant professor of neuroscience.

Systems biology research study reveals benefits of vacation and meditation

Scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, the University of California, San Francisco, and Harvard Medical School used a rigorous study design to assess the biological impact of meditation compared to vacation. They examined the effect of meditation on gene expression patterns in both novice and regular meditators. The researchers found that a resort vacation provides a strong and immediate impact on molecular networks associated with stress and immune pathways, in addition to short- term improvements in well-being, as measured by feelings of vitality and distress.

Two-photon imaging of Meissner's corpuscle mechanoreceptors in living tissue

Two-photon imaging of Meissner's corpuscle mechanoreceptors in living tissue

Nagoya, Japan - When a fingertip explores the surface of a material, mechanoreceptors called Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) near the surface of the skin mainly respond to low-frequency vibration stimuli such as fluttering or slipping on the skin. Thus they are responsible for sensitivity to light touch.