Brain

Myelin linked to speedy recovery of human visual system after tumor removal

Myelin linked to speedy recovery of human visual system after tumor removal

An interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists and neurosurgeons from the University of Rochester has used a new imaging technique to show how the human brain heals itself in just a few weeks following surgical removal of a brain tumor.

In a study featured on the cover of the current issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine, the team found that recovery of vision in patients with pituitary tumors is predicted by the integrity of myelin--the insulation that wraps around connections between neurons--in the optic nerves.

Alcohol interferes with body's ability to regulate sleep

Alcohol interferes with body's ability to regulate sleep

COLUMBIA, Mo. -- Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine have found that drinking alcohol to fall asleep interferes with sleep homeostasis, the body's sleep-regulating mechanism.

Body's cold 'sensor' could hold key for frostbite and hypothermia treatments

A cold 'sensor' which triggers the skin's vascular response to the cold could represent an exciting new therapeutic target for the treatment of frostbite and hypothermia, according to scientists at King's College London.

Early identification of modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline

One in 6 Ontario adults say they've had a traumatic brain injury in their lifetime

TORONTO, Dec. 11, 2014 -- Nearly seventeen per cent of adults surveyed in Ontario said they have suffered a traumatic brain injury that left them unconscious for five minutes or required them to be hospitalized overnight, according to new research. These same adults also reported more substance use, smoking and recent psychiatric distress.

Researchers compared the prevalence of reported TBI with current substance use, cigarette smoking and psychological distress among 1,999 Ontario adults.

Novel fMRI technique identifies HIV-associated cognitive decline before symptoms occur

WASHINGTON -- A five-minute functional MRI (fMRI) test can pick up neuronal dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals who don't yet exhibit cognitive decline, say neuroscientists and clinicians at Georgetown University Medical Center.

Their study in Neuroimaging: Clinical provides proof-of-concept that imaging can help track neural functioning in this population, known to be affected by the virus and potentially by the treatments meant to keep HIV at bay.

Progesterone offers no significant benefit in traumatic brain injury clinical trial

Treatment of acute traumatic brain injury with the hormone progesterone provides no significant benefit to patients when compared with placebo, a NIH-funded phase III clinical trial has concluded.

The results are scheduled for publication Dec. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Study concludes that progesterone administered to severe TBI patients, showed no benefit

A study concluded that after five days of treatment with a novel formulation of progesterone acutely administered to patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), showed no clinical benefits.

The paper entitled, "A Clinical Trial of Progesterone for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury," will be published online in The New England Journal of Medicine, December 10, 2014.

Can poor sleep lead to dementia?

MINNEAPOLIS - People who have sleep apnea or spend less time in deep sleep may be more likely to have changes in the brain that are associated with dementia, according to a new study published in the December 10, 2014, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists may treat alcohol dependence

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptor proteins that regulate the expression of genes.

  • PPAR agonists, which activate PPARs, are used to treat diabetes and elevated blood lipids.
  • Mouse and human data suggest that PPAR agonists may be repurposed for treating alcohol dependence in humans.