Brain

The brain performs feats of math to make sense of the world

The brain performs feats of math to make sense of the world

Even if we find it difficult to calculate complicated probabilities on the spot, our brains constantly carry out these sorts of computations without our awareness -- and they're remarkably good at it.

Fair or unfair? Facial cues influence how social exclusion is judged

Fair or unfair? Facial cues influence how social exclusion is judged

People are often excluded from social groups. As researchers from the University of Basel in Switzerland report in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, whether uninvolved observers find this acceptable or not may depend on the facial appearances of those excluded. The exclusion of cold and incompetent looking people is more likely to be accepted.

NIH collaboration helps advance potential Zika treatments

NIH collaboration helps advance potential Zika treatments

Researchers at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) recently identified compounds that potentially can be used to inhibit Zika virus replication and reduce its ability to kill brain cells. These compounds now can be studied by the broader research community to help combat the Zika public health crisis. NCATS is part of the National Institutes of Health.

ERs after Obamacare: More patients, fewer on-call specialists

ERs after Obamacare: More patients, fewer on-call specialists

WASHINGTON -- The average monthly emergency department visit increased by 5.7 percent in Illinois after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), although the population remained essentially flat.

New hope for Zika treatment found in large-scale screen of existing drugs

New hope for Zika treatment found in large-scale screen of existing drugs

Scientists report that a specialized drug screen test using lab-grown human cells has revealed two classes of compounds already in the pharmaceutical arsenal that may work against mosquito-borne Zika virus infections.

Alzheimer's: Nicotinic receptors as a new therapeutic target

Alzheimer's: Nicotinic receptors as a new therapeutic target

Several scientific studies have indicated that nicotine may be beneficial for memory function. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS set out to shed further light on the properties attributed to nicotine - which is known to have an adverse effect on health - by determining the precise structure of the nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus region of the brain. Using mouse models for Alzheimer's disease, they identified the β2 subunit of the nicotinic receptor as a target that, if blocked, prevents the memory loss associated with Alzheimer's.

Vesicles that trap amyloid appear to also contribute to Alzheimer's

Vesicles that trap amyloid appear to also contribute to Alzheimer's

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Aug. 29, 2016) - Vesicles, fluid-filled sacs that brain cells make to trap amyloid, a hallmark of Alzheimer's, appear to also contribute to the disease, scientists report.

Reducing the production of these vesicles, called exosomes, could help reduce the amount of amyloid and lipid that accumulates, slow disease progression and help protect cognition, scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University report in The Journal of Neuroscience.

Scripps Florida scientists shed new light on the role of calcium in learning and memory

Scripps Florida scientists shed new light on the role of calcium in learning and memory

JUPITER, FL - August 25, 2016 - While calcium's importance for our bones and teeth is well known, its role in neurons--in particular, its effects on processes such as learning and memory--has been less well defined.

In a new study published in the journal Cell Reports, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) offer new insights how calcium in mitochondria--the powerhouse of all cells--can impact the development of the brain and adult cognition.

Patients with moderate to severe TBI twice as likely to die from an unintentional injury

Research examining adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who participated in rehabilitation showed that they were twice as likely to die from an unintentional injury that occurred following their TBI. This was in comparison to individuals in rehabilitation of similar age, sex, and race but without TBI. People who have had a moderate to severe TBI may experience changes in cognition and balance, which may put them at greater risk of subsequent unintentional injuries.

First study examines PTSD & cognitive impairment in World Trade Center responders

CHICAGO, August 25, 2016 - New research published by the journal Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring confirms the connection between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment - in this case, among those who helped with search, rescue and cleanup efforts following the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks.