Brain

Transplantation with human placental stem cells improves diabetes complications in rats

Putnam Valley, NY. (August 30, 2016) - In an effort to determine if stem cell therapy can prevent or improve a condition called "diabetic foot" caused by poor blood flow in patients with diabetes, a team of researchers in China has found that transplanting human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into rats modeled with diabetes can affect blood vessel growth, potentially improving blood flow and preventing critical limb ischemia (CLI), a condition that results in diabetic foot and frequently leads to amputation.

Cannabinoid receptor activates spermatozoa

During fertilization, a sperm must first fuse with the plasma membrane and then penetrate the female egg in order to penetrate it. To this end, sperm cells go through a process known as the acrosome reaction which is the reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm as it approaches the egg. In the lab, this so-called acrosome reaction is considered a test for analysing the ability of semen to accomplish fertilisation. A receptor for an endogenous cannabinoid plays a crucial role in this process.

Transplanted bone marrow-derived cells reduce recurrent miscarriage in mice

Putnam Valley, NY. (August 30, 2016) - In a study focusing on the role of self-donated (autologous) bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in placental vascular development, researchers in Japan have discovered that when transplanted into pregnant mice, EPCs can contribute to better blood vessel growth that helps in forming "normalized" placental vascularization, leading, in turn, to reduced recurrent miscarriages by providing a healthier fetal environment during gestation.

IU study: 'Morning people' self-sabotage less at night, night owls' less at sunrise

IU study: 'Morning people' self-sabotage less at night, night owls' less at sunrise

BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- A study by psychological researchers at Indiana University shows that people are more likely to undermine their performance at stressful tasks when they're operating at "peak capacity" based on their preferred time of the day.

Addiction cravings may get their start deep in the right side of the brain

Addiction cravings may get their start deep in the right side of the brain

INDIANAPOLIS - If you really want a drink right now, the source of your craving may be a pea-sized structure deep inside the right side of your brain, according to scientists at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

Dog brains process both what we say and how we say it

Dog brains process both what we say and how we say it

The first study to investigate how dog brains process speech shows that our best friends in the animal kingdom care about both what we say and how we say it. Dogs, like people, use the left hemisphere to process words, a right hemisphere brain region to process intonation, and praising activates dog's reward center only when both words and intonation match, according to a study in Science.

Researchers identify neural factors that predict adolescent alcohol use

Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine have identified 34 neural factors that predict adolescent alcohol consumption. The list, based upon complex algorithms analyzing data from neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging studies, was significantly more accurate --approximately 74 percent -- than demographic information alone.

The findings are published in the current issue of American Journal of Psychiatry.

A data-cleaning tool for building better prediction models

A data-cleaning tool for building better prediction models

Big data sets are full of dirty data, and these outliers, typos and missing values can produce distorted models that lead to wrong conclusions and bad decisions, be it in healthcare or finance. With so much at stake, data cleaning should be easier.

Many with migraines unhappy with treatments and struggle to fight stigma

Philadelphia, August 31, 2016 - Migraine in America 2016, a national survey by Health Union of more than 3,900 individuals experiencing migraines, reveals that patients have numerous treatment options, but are often dissatisfied with results. A summary infographic is also available.

Researchers discover machines can learn by simply observing

It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield.

This could mean advances in the world of technology with machines able to predict, among other things, human behaviour.