Brain

Poor neighborhoods create misfortune, ill health

Poor neighborhoods create misfortune, ill health

DURHAM, NC -- Residents of poorer Chicago neighborhoods are more likely to suffer terrible life events -- and their health suffers as a result, according to a new Duke University study.

The misfortunes they face can come in many forms -- from mugging to job loss to the death of a loved one -- and the stress involved often leads to anxiety, depression and other illnesses, according to the study, released April 8 in PLoS ONE, an open access, peer-reviewed journal.

Deep, integrated genomic analysis re-classifies lower-grade brain tumors

Deep, integrated genomic analysis re-classifies lower-grade brain tumors

Comprehensive genomic analysis of low-grade brain tumors sorts them into three categories, one of which has the molecular hallmarks and shortened survival of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal of brain tumors, researchers reported at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2014.

Scientists reveal potential link between brain development and breast cancer gene

Scientists reveal potential link between brain development and breast cancer gene

When the researchers eliminated both BRCA1 and p53, they found the neurons grew at a normal rate, but still disorderly, with cells pointed in the wrong direction.

"In this scenario, we recover a lot of neurons but there's still a lot of abnormalities, such as cells that are sideways and pointed the wrong direction," says Gerald Pao, who, along with Quan Zhu and Perez–Garcia, is a primary contributor to the paper and Salk researcher.

Perception that eating disorders women's problem delays men getting help

The widespread perception that only women have eating disorders is preventing men with these problems from getting the help and support they need, indicates a small study published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Estimates suggest that around 1 in 250 women and 1 in 2000 men in the UK have anorexia nervosa, one of the four recognised types of eating disorder - the others being bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS).

Memory accuracy and strength can be manipulated during sleep

The sense of smell might seem intuitive, almost something you take for granted. But researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center have found that memory of specific odors depends on the ability of the brain to learn, process and recall accurately and effectively during slow-wave sleep — a deep sleep characterized by slow brain waves.

Processing new information during sleep compromises memory

Washington, DC — New research appearing in the April 9 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience highlights the important role sleep plays in strengthening and maintaining the accuracy of a memory and hints at why the brain shuts out sensory information during periods of deep sleep. The study found that introducing new odor information to an animal while it sleeps compromises its ability to remember the difference between new and previously encountered smells while awake.

Chronic smoking can diminish postural stability

  • Chronic cigarette smoking has a high co-occurrence with alcohol use disorders.

  • Postural instability is also common among alcohol dependent (AD) individuals.
  • New findings indicate that chronic cigarette use continues to impact the brain systems regulating postural stability even during abstinence from alcohol.

Lipid levels during prenatal brain development impact autism: York U study

In a groundbreaking York University study, researchers have found that abnormal levels of lipid molecules in the brain can affect the interaction between two key neural pathways in early prenatal brain development, which can trigger autism. And, environmental causes such as exposure to chemicals in some cosmetics and common over-the-counter medication can affect the levels of these lipids, according to the researchers.

Language structure… you're born with it

Humans are unique in their ability to acquire language. But how? A new study published in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences shows that we are in fact born with the basic fundamental knowledge of language, thus shedding light on the age-old linguistic "nature vs. nurture" debate.

Advanced warning systems increase safety at intersections, study shows

Most drivers have experienced a traffic signal that turns yellow just as they approach an intersection, which makes it difficult for them to decide whether to stop or proceed through it. The wrong choice in this situation, known as the "dilemma zone," may lead to crashes, especially at high-speed intersections.