Brain

Major blood vessel gene contributes to vision loss in premature infants

Major blood vessel gene contributes to vision loss in premature infants

A gene known to play a major role in constricting blood vessels also appears to be a major player in the aberrant blood vessel growth that can destroy the vision of premature babies.

Endothelin gene expression is greatly increased in the retinal tissue of a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity, a condition that significantly affects about 1,500 infants annually, resulting in blindness in about half those babies, according to researchers at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University.

Scientists reveal new family tree for birds, clear back to dinosaur parents

Scientists reveal new family tree for birds, clear back to dinosaur parents

PORTLAND, Ore. -- A large international group of scientists, including an Oregon Health & Science University neuroscientist, is publishing this week the results of a first-ever look at the genome of dozens of common birds. The scientists' research tells the story of how modern birds evolved after the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs and almost everything else on Earth 66 million years ago, and gives new details on how birds came to have feathers, flight and song.

Blood biomarker predicts presence of intracranial lesions following mild traumatic brain injury

In cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI), predicting the likelihood of a cranial lesion and determining the need for head computed tomography (CT) can be aided by measuring markers of bone injury in the blood. The results of a new study comparing the usefulness of two biomarkers released into the blood following a TBI are presented in Journal of Neurotrauma.

Perfectionism may be the problem behind chronic fatigue syndrome

Perfectionism may be the issue in chronic fatigue and in other medical disturbances such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia, according to a new paper.

Immune cells in brain respond to fat in diet, causing mice to eat

Immune cells perform a previously unsuspected role in the brain that may contribute to obesity, according to a new study by UC San Francisco researchers.

When the researchers fed mice a diet high in saturated milk fats, microglia, a type of immune cell, underwent a population explosion in the brain region called the hypothalamus, which is responsible for feeding behavior.

Disney Research builds computer models to analyze play in pro basketball and soccer

With the ball at the three-point line near the top of the key, what will Tim Duncan of the NBA's San Antonio Spurs do? Pass to a player posting up? Or does he take a shot? An analysis by Disney Research of player tracking data, however, suggests the highest probability is a pass to guard Tony Parker on his left.

Patient awakes from post-traumatic minimally conscious state after administration of depressant drug

Amsterdam, NL, December 12, 2014 - A patient who had suffered a traumatic brain injury unexpectedly recovered full consciousness after the administration of midazolam, a mild depressant drug of the GABA A agonists family. This resulted in the first recorded case of an "awakening" from a minimally-conscious state (MCS) using this therapy. Although similar awakenings have been reported using other drugs, this dramatic result was unanticipated. It is reported in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.

Wake Forest research confirms controversial nitrite hypothesis

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - Dec. 12, 2014 - Understanding how nitrite can improve conditions such as hypertension, heart attack and stroke has been the object of worldwide research studies. New research from Wake Forest University has potentially moved the science one step closer to this goal.

Rates of intracerebral haemorrhage in Australia appear to be falling

Stroke is Australia's second biggest killer after coronary heart disease, but rates of a common type of stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), appear to be falling, according to a UNSW study that is the largest of its kind in Australia.

ICH accounts for about 15% of all strokes. Close to 40% of patients will die within 30 days and significant disability is common in survivors.

The improvement in the incidence of ICH may be the result of the widespread implementation of proven prevention and treatment programs, the researchers say.

Obese children's brains more responsive to sugar

A new study led by researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine finds that the brains of obese children literally light up differently when tasting sugar.

Published online in International Journal of Obesity, the study does not show a causal relationship between sugar hypersensitivity and overeating but it does support the idea that the growing number of America's obese youth may have a heightened psychological reward response to food.