Brain

The threat of group extinction proves a powerful motivator

Charles Darwin was right: Groups enjoy an advantage whose members are "ready to aid one another and to sacrifice themselves for the common good," according to a new study by researchers at Rice University, Texas A&M University and the University of East Anglia.

Using variations of the public goods game, the researchers showed that when no other mechanism is present to reinforce group cooperation, the threat of group extinction is sufficiently powerful to motivate and increase cooperation within a group.

Address systemic issues to change toxic health care environment, SLU commentary says

Address systemic issues to change toxic health care environment, SLU commentary says

ST. LOUIS - A multipronged approach that improved mental health among Saint Louis University students during their first year of medical school could serve as a model for reducing stress and depression later in their training, says the author of a commentary in the September issue of Academic Medicine.

"It's an antiquated idea that what doesn't kill you makes you stronger," Stuart Slavin, M.D., M.Ed., associate dean of curriculum for SLU School of Medicine, says. "For far too many in medical school it simply makes them burned out, anxious and depressed."

Want to hit your target? Good luck, short stuff

COLUMBUS, Ohio - Tall quarterbacks might have more going for them than a clear view over the offensive line.

New research shows that tall people are better than shorter people at correctly identifying the location of targets in their middle-distance vision - between three and 20 meters away. (In football, that would be about three to 22 yards away.)

And that visual superiority holds true even when tall people sit down and their shorter counterparts stand on a box or stool, found a first-of-its-kind study.

Antibody reduces harmful brain amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's patients

Although the causes of Alzheimer's disease are still unknown, it is clear that the disease commences with progressive amyloid deposition in the brains of affected persons between ten and fifteen years before the emergence of initial clinical symptoms such as memory loss. Researchers have now been able to show that Aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody, selectively binds brain amyloid plaques, thus enabling microglial cells to remove the plaques.

WSU researchers see hyperbaric chamber easing drug withdrawal symptoms

PULLMAN, Wash.--Washington State University researchers have found that treatments of pure oxygen in a high-pressure chamber can relieve the symptoms of opiate withdrawal.

Ray Quock--a pharmacologist and Washington State University psychology professor--gave morphine-addicted mice pure pressurized oxygen before they began withdrawal from the drug. The mice had far less severe withdrawal symptoms than addicted mice that did not receive the treatment.

Outwardly, said Quock, the treated mice appeared "much calmer. You can tell the difference."

Scientists discover noninvasive technique to monitor migraines

Scientists discover noninvasive technique to monitor migraines

New UBC research has found that amplified electroencephalograms (EEGs) can produce diagnostic results of a brainwave associated with migraines and epilepsy that are comparable to the current, more invasive, standard--a discovery that could lead to better treatment and diagnosis of these conditions.

Scientists show that a 'Superman' disguise could actually work

Researchers at the University of York have shown that small alterations to a person's appearance, such as wearing glasses, can significantly hinder positive facial identification.

The research has the potential to contribute to future policies concerning photo identification, such as drivers' licences or passports, where an individual has to be matched correctly to their image in order to inform important security decisions.

Insecure childhood can make dealing with stress harder

Imagine two candidates at a high stakes job interview. One of them handles the pressure with ease and sails through the interview. The other candidate, however, feels very nervous and under-performs.

Why do some people perform better than others under emotionally stressful conditions? The clue might lie in early childhood experiences, a recent study published in the open access online journal, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience found.

A new key in fighting Kennedy's disease

EAST LANSING, Mich. -- If a disease affects motoneurons, cells that control voluntary muscle activity, researchers should focus their efforts on motoneurons to find potential treatments, right?

Not always.

What your choice of smartphone says about you

Choice of smartphone provides valuable information about its owner.

This is one of the findings of a doctoral study conducted by Heather Shaw, from University of Lincoln's School of Psychology. She is presenting her work today, Thursday 1 September, to the British Psychological Society Social Psychology Section annual conference in Cardiff.

Miss Shaw and her fellow researchers conducted two studies of personality differences between iPhone and Android smartphone users. Lancaster University was also involved in the study.