Brain

In search of neurobiological factors for schizophrenia

In search of neurobiological factors for schizophrenia

Schizophrenic psychoses are a frequently occurring group of psychiatric disorders caused by a combination of biological, social and environmental factors. These disorders are associated with changes to the brain structure: for example, the hippocampus in the temporal lobe is usually smaller in affected individuals than in healthy ones. It is not yet known whether these changes to the brain structure are a result of the disorders and their accompanying medications, or whether they are already present before the onset of symptoms.

Researchers find brain's 'physics engine'

Researchers find brain's 'physics engine'

Researchers Find Brain's 'Physics Engine'Predicts how world behaves; among 'most important aspects of cognition for survival'

Whether or not they aced the subject in high school, human beings are physics masters when it comes to understanding and predicting how objects in the world will behave. A Johns Hopkins University cognitive scientist has found the source of that intuition, the brain's "physics engine."

Scientific serendipity yields new neuron type in mouse retina

Scientific serendipity yields new neuron type in mouse retina

In the retina of mice, a new type of neuron that falls outside century-old classifications has been discovered.

Neurons are nerve cells involved in receiving or sending signals. The new cell, which the UW Medicine researchers conducting the research named GluMI (pronounced "gloomy") acts like one class of neurons but anatomically resembles another.

The discovery is bound to excite vision researchers, said Luca Della Santina, one of the study's co-lead authors and a former postdoctoral student in the University of Washington Department of Biological Structure.

Talking back: Countering terrorist narratives may reduce recruitment

Recruiters for violent extremist groups, just like screenwriters and marketers, use storytelling techniques to craft their messages. Analyzing those narratives and producing counter-narratives may be one way to cut the success of terrorist recruitment, according to researchers.

Want a better memory? Try eating a Mediterranean diet

Eating a Mediterranean diet can slow down cognitive decline.

The Mediterranean diet can improve your mind, as well your heart, shows a study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Nutrition.

By sticking to the Mediterranean diet the study showed that people had slowed rates of cognitive decline, reduced conversion to Alzheimer's, and improved cognitive function.

Cascade of events leading to prion disease described

Philadelphia, PA, August 9, 2016 - Prion diseases are deadly neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals that are characterized by misfolded forms of prion protein (PrP). Development of effective treatments has been hampered by the lack of good experimental models. In a new study published in The American Journal of Pathology, researchers describe the distinct stages of prion disease in the mouse retina and define an experimental model to specifically test therapeutic approaches.

Psychologist's magic makes a non-existent object disappear

Magicians use sleight of hand to confuse you about where an object is. But could they make you believe that you saw a non-existent object disappear?

A team of experimental psychologists at Oxford University developed their own magic trick to find out. Their results are published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

Low oxygen, high risk: How tumors adapt to become more aggressive

PHILADELPHIA -- (August 8, 2016)--One of the many reasons tumors are so difficult to treat is that they are able to adapt whenever they are exposed to unfavorable conditions. Hypoxia, or a lack of oxygen, is one example of a phenomenon that should weaken the tumor, but instead, the malignant cells are able to compensate and drive more aggressive disease behavior.

Activating dopamine neurons could turn off binge-like eating behavior

HOUSTON - (Aug. 8, 2016) - While binge eating affects about 10 percent of adults in the United States, the neurobiological basis of the disease is unclear. Researchers at the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital found that certain neural circuits have the ability to inhibit binge-like eating behavior in mice. Their report appears today in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

New drugs hope to fight neglected tropical diseases

Scientists say they are a step closer to providing effective treatments for three "neglected" diseases after making a chemical which can kill the parasites that cause the illnesses.

Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis (also known as sleeping sickness) affect 20 million people worldwide and lead to more than 50,000 deaths annually.

The diseases are caused by infection from parasites which have some similar biology and genomic sequence, suggesting that all three diseases could be cured with a single class of drug.