Science 2.0

Subscribe to Science 2.0 feed
Science 2.0® - Science for the next 2,000 years, Non-profit, non-partisan, independent.
Updated: 7 min 55 sec ago

The Evolutionary Origins Of Skin

Aug 07 2019 - 09:08
Mammals living in diverse types of environments, from ocean swimmers to mountain dwellers, have a diverse variety of protective skins adapted to the elements and now one of the largest comparative genomic studies to help determine the key molecular and evolutionary origins of mammalian adaptations seen in skin proteins found which genes, among the dozens of mammalian keratin genes, are required for living on land or in the sea.

The products of these keratin genes assemble to form the girders of the cytoskeleton in skin cells, called keratinocytes, that maintain a tight barrier between the body and the outside world.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Mental Health Disorders Are Not Like Measles, Which Makes It Difficult To View Them Using A Medical Lens

Aug 06 2019 - 12:08

With two recent mass homicides, one by someone who endorsed "white supremacist" views and one that supported "Antifa" violence, the search is on for commonality between two people in opposition to each other in many ways. One commonality is skin color but there is no biological hypothesis for how melanin might increase violence. There certainly are not a lot of women doing these shootings so the chromosome correlation is one of the questions that needs to be asked.

However, a history of mental illness is common in almost all cases of mass violence. 

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Nicotinomide Riboside Linked To Proxy For Healthier Aging In Pilot Study

Aug 06 2019 - 11:08

In a small pilot study consume who consumed a natural dietary supplement called nicotinomide riboside (NR) daily showed signs of mimicking caloric restriction, which in mice has been linked to health benefits.

Caloric restriction is a starvation diet. When lower level organisms such as fruit flies, roundworms, rodents are raised on such a diet from birth, slashing of caloric intake by about a third has health benefits and, in some cases, extended lifespan. No humans have done that, it would be a human rights violation to wean a baby on a starvation diet, and claims about benefits in adults who took it up have too many confounders to be anything more than anecdotes. 

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

The Pancreas Has Little Exposure To Sex Hormones So Why Do Women Get One Form Of Its Cancer?

Aug 06 2019 - 11:08

Though the pancreas is an organ with little exposure to sex hormones, one form of pancreatic cancer affects specifically women, often young.

How is this possible, even though the pancreas ? This pancreatic cancer, known as "mucinous cyst", has strange similarities with another mucinous cancer, affecting the ovaries.

A new paper has a plausible answer. Both tumors originate from embryonic germ cells. While still undifferentiated, these cells migrate to the reproductive organs. On their way, some can mistakenly stop in other organs, bringing a risk of tumor that may occur 30 years later. 

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Nitrogen Dioxide In Air Statistically Linked To Asthma - But The Methods Are Unclean

Aug 06 2019 - 10:08

In developed countries, air quality is now great. So great that true smog (PM10 - particulate matter 10 microns in diameter) is basically going extinct in countries like America so epidemiologists and demographers have taken to promoting concern about particles so small they can only be detected with an electron microscope (such as PM2.5). 

While claims of increased mortality due to PM2.5 have fallen flat, asthma still exists and it is well-known that asthmatics have shorter lifespans.(1) A new paper speculates that as many as 170 cases of asthma per 100,000 kids each year could be caused by traffic pollution, and specifically Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is really common at trace levels everywhere.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Ultra-Low Microcurrents In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension And Chronic Wounds

Aug 05 2019 - 01:08

Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The low levels of antioxidants accompanied by raised levels of markers of free radical damage play a major role in delaying wound healing.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Rich Or Poor, Scammers Don't Cheat Because They Need The Money — They Cheat Because They're Cheaters

Aug 04 2019 - 07:08

Why do people cheat?

When we hear that a poor person scammed others out of money, we may attribute this behavior to their poverty, rationalizing that the person violated ethics and the law because they needed the money.

But the rich and powerful also cheat: falsifying loan applications, evading taxes, and running Ponzi schemes that defraud investors of millions.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Ingenious Responses To Rising Seas In Netherlands, Florida And Bangladesh - And How High Will The Sea Rise?

Aug 03 2019 - 23:08
With the greenland ice melt in the news, what can we do to adapt to a rising sea level, and how much will it actually be? First, the melting this summer was nothing unexpected. Last year Greenland had so much snow in 2017–8 that it actually gained ice rather than lost ice. So, now we have a warmer summer and it loses more than usual - not a big deal. This of course is the northern hemisphere summer which is why this news is about Greenland rather than Western Antarctica. Mark Serreze, Director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center, interviewed by Discovery blog put it like this: If you look at temperature records for the Arctic, what you see is natural climate variability superposed upon the general warming trend.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

2019 Greenland Melt Not Likely To Beat 2012 Record - 0.5 Mm Sea Rise Ice Melt Is Dramatic, But Glacier Flow Is Long Term Issue

Aug 03 2019 - 22:08

Short summary. The 0.5 mm sea level rise due to ice melting in July is dramatic but you need to compare it with the rest of the year. July is usually the top month for ice loss. In the winter the Greenland ice sheet gains ice through snowfall, so you need to look at the balance between losses and gains.

Also you need to compare it with previous years. It’s actually not quite enough of a melt so far to beat the 2012 record. The Arctic sea ice minimum this year is also not expected to be as low as the 2012 minimum. .

This is nothing to be scared of. Just an unsurprising increased melt, after a previous year when there was so much snow that Greenland actually gained ice due to heavy winter snowfall in 2017–8

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Human-animal Hybrids Are Coming, To Grow Organs For Transplant - What Are The Implications?

Aug 03 2019 - 09:08

Around the world thousands of people are on organ donor waiting lists. While some of those people will receive the organ transplants they need in time, the sad reality is that many will die waiting. But controversial new research may provide a way to address this crisis.

Japan has recently overturned its ban on the creation of human-animal hybrids, or “chimeras”, and approved a request by researchers from the University of Tokyo to create a human-mouse hybrid.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Sloths: A Habitat For Algae, Fungi & Cockroaches

Aug 03 2019 - 02:08
Ever wonder why the slow moving sloth has a slightly greenish hue? Ever consider the sloth at all? Well, perhaps not. Location, location, location, is the mantra for many of us in our macro world, but it is also true for the small world of algae.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Trees Do It, And Now A Thin Slice Of Wood Can Remove Some Water Contaminants

Aug 02 2019 - 18:08
Most membranes that are used to distill fresh water from salty are made of polymers, which are derived from fossil fuels. 

There is a reason that fossil fuels have stuck around for so long. No longer do they have terrific energy density in the form of gasoline but they make up many useful products. But many of those products can be difficult to recycle.

A new wood membrane takes a page out of the book of trees instead. In a limited sense, the intricate system of water circulating in a tree can filter it and a team of researchers have figured out how to use a thin slice of wood as a membrane through which water vapor can evaporate, leaving behind salt or other contaminants.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Overexposed To Bisphenol F? Blame Mother Nature

Aug 02 2019 - 14:08

Whether you realize it or not, there’s a good chance that you are being exposed to bisphenol F (BPF). There’s even a fair chance that you are highly exposed. If so, should you be concerned and what should you do about it?

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Anthropology Paper Shocked Primates Sometimes Do Things Regardless Of Evolutionary Optimization

Aug 02 2019 - 12:08
Gorilla teeth are large and high crested when compared to other great apes, believed to an adaptation to them spending a large amount of time chewing tough fibrous plant material - they have a vegetarian diet consisting almost exclusively of leafy vegetation and fruit.

The high crests on their molar teeth are at risk of damage if they eat hard objects, such as nuts encased in a woody shell, but they do it anyway. And an anthropology paper seems surprised a primate might engage in behavior that is not a force of evolution. 

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Aging: Once You Reach 105, Your Chances Of Living To 110 Are Pretty Good

Aug 02 2019 - 11:08
For most aging people, their 90s are the most perilous time. But if you live to be 105, your chances of living to 110 basically level out after declining when people reach their 90s.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Trust In Science Is Now On Par With The Military - And Above The Media And Government

Aug 02 2019 - 10:08
In 2016, Americans seemed to have waning trust in science. Back then, only 21 percent had "a great deal of confidence" in science(1) even though American adult science literacy leads the world.

Science has been doing something right in the last few years. That number is up by almost half, to 35 percent.(2)

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Telepathic Gaming: Co-Op With Friends Using Only Your Minds

Aug 02 2019 - 08:08

Telepathic communication might be one step closer to reality thanks to new research from the University of Washington. A team created a method that allows three people to work together to solve a problem using only their minds.

In BrainNet, three people play a Tetris-like game using a brain-to-brain interface. This is the first demonstration of two things: a brain-to-brain network of more than two people, and a person being able to both receive and send information to others using only their brain. The team published its results in Scientific Reports after being posted on arXiv last year.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

Fake News: Blame Partisan Media, Blame Social Media, But It's A Monster We All Created, And It's Worldwide

Aug 02 2019 - 07:08

The term "fake news" has been popularized by President Donald Trump in recent years, and while its meaning has been hotly debated, the spreading of false information to fulfill a political agenda is far from a new concept. It's not just an American thing.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

The EU Can Barely Feed Itself, And A New Report Wants It To Get Worse

Aug 02 2019 - 07:08
As France has drifted away from agricultural progress, it has become more reliant on imported food. What was once Europe's greatest ag engine has become the sick old man of of the continent. A new paper says it needs to get even worse if the EU is going to honor its other commitments to environmentalists.

Agricultural areas cover 174 million hectares, 40 percent of the EU, yet despite what may be the world's most fertile land, Europe still accounts for 85 percent of the world's agricultural subsidies. Their products are too expensive to sell elsewhere without them.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0

The Placental Microbiome Is The Schrodinger's Cat Of Biology, Which Means It Isn't Science Yet

Aug 01 2019 - 13:08
People are rushing to buy supplements because of (correct) claims that the microbiome is important. While the science on helpful microbes is correct it does not mean yogurt or any other food - even organic, try as their trade groups try to claim that - is helping any more than that redox science in mitochondria means you should spend your money on antioxidant supplements.

There is no compelling evidence any of that has an impact and if it did, that it would be beneficial.

read more

Categories: Science 2.0