If you think of the human body, microvascular networks comprised of the smallest blood vessels are a central part of the body's function. They facilitate the exchange of essential nutrients and gasses between the blood stream and surrounding tissues, as well as regulate blood flow in individual organs.

WASHINGTON, D.C., March 15, 2018 -- In a jet engine, the flow of air is slowed down to increase the temperature and pressure for combustion -- burning fuel with the right ratio of fuel and air to conquer drag allows for acceleration.

But in supersonic engines achieving the right flow speed, producing the right ratio of evaporated fuel and causing ignition at the right time is more complex. With evaporating liquid in a combustion chamber, there is more at play than just gravity and drag, especially with supersonic shock waves in the equation.

Neuroscientists at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre have identified a circuit in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the brain that integrates head- and visual-motion signals. The study, published today in Neuron, elucidates the mechanisms by which visual and vestibular inputs to the brain sum together to enable appropriate behavioural responses.

Hydropower is the world's top provider of renewable energy, producing a whopping 16 per cent of the global energy supply. That's a good thing when it comes to the climate, especially compared to energy from fossil fuels. But hydropower is not without its environmental costs, particularly when it comes to the land that is drowned under reservoirs or gobbled up by roads and power lines built for a hydropower project.

Within both plant and animal cells, motor proteins act like the engines in a busy train system. They shuttle material in the cell from one location to another. And just as commuter trains travel a predictable route in a defined direction, their volume of transport is commensurate with need. At rush hour, more trains are in operation. At midnight, there's no point in running trains every 10 minutes.

In February 2016, faced with a drastic increase in the number of Zika infections and in order to establish a link between the virus and neurological complications, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)". In March 2016, with the aid of the REACting consortium, Inserm took charge of the establishment, sponsorship and scientific follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women exposed to Zika in the French territories in the Americas, monitored by the French Antilles-French Guiana Clinical Investigation Center (Inserm CIC 1424).

UCLA scientists have developed a new method that utilizes microscopic splinter-like structures called "nanospears" for the targeted delivery of biomolecules such as genes straight to patient cells. These magnetically guided nanostructures could enable gene therapies that are safer, faster and more cost-effective.

Nuclear fusion, the process that powers our sun, happens when nuclear reactions between light elements produce heavier ones. It's also happening - at a smaller scale - in a Colorado State University laboratory.

A new lab-based study has shown that when airway cells damaged by cigarette smoke are exposed instead to glo vapour, the biological effects caused by smoke exposure are reversed.

glo is British American Tobacco's tobacco heating product (THP). It is designed to heat rather than burn tobacco, and the vapour produced has around 90-95% less of certain toxicants compared to cigarette smoke**.

CAMBRIDGE, MA -- MIT engineers have developed new technology that could be used to evaluate new drugs and detect possible side effects before the drugs are tested in humans. Using a microfluidic platform that connects engineered tissues from up to 10 organs, the researchers can accurately replicate human organ interactions for weeks at a time, allowing them to measure the effects of drugs on different parts of the body.

Such a system could reveal, for example, whether a drug that is intended to treat one organ will have adverse effects on another.