WASHINGTON, May 10, 2018 -- Melatonin is a widely used supplement. Many people turn to the hormone hoping it will improve their sleep, but do claims of its efficacy have any merit? Clinical evidence suggests that the benefits of melatonin are modest, and it may not help everyone. And there's little to stop supplement makers from selling you snake oil. Reactions explains the chemistry of this popular sleep aid:

A study published in the BMJ Open journal shows that even moderate coffee consumption during pregnancy, one to two cups per day, is related to a risk of overweight or obesity in school age children. It has not been clearly shown if caffeine is the direct cause of the overweight, but the relationship, alone, has caused researchers to encourage increased caution.

(Geneva, 11 May, 2018) An international research team has today reported the first results of a study investigating the natural history of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) - a rare genetic liver disease that predominantly affects children. Most alarmingly, the team reported that, by the age of 10 years, approximately half of the children with two different forms of PFIC had already received a liver transplant.

(Geneva, 11 May, 2018) Researchers presenting at the 51st ESPGHAN Annual Meeting have today revealed the results of a new study which proves the efficacy and effectiveness of using ginger to treat vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis [1] - one of the most common conditions resulting in admission to paediatric emergency departments.

University of Waterloo chemists have found a much faster and more efficient way to store and process information by expanding the limitations of how the flow of electricity can be used and managed.

In a recently released study, the chemists discovered that light can induce magnetization in certain semiconductors - the standard class of materials at the heart of all computing devices today.

A Purdue University graduate and a Purdue Research Park of Northwest Indiana (NWI) startup have published a research study in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters that identifies a small molecule SERCA activator that may improve memory and cognition.

In the Alzheimer's disease models, the SERCA activator shows promise in reducing the cellular stress and preventing cell loss in neurons. The molecule corrects cells' calcium ion balance and represents a new therapeutic strategy for neurodegeneration drug development.

New York, NY--May 10, 2018--Computer scientists at Columbia Engineering have invented FontCode, a new way to embed hidden information in ordinary text by imperceptibly changing, or perturbing, the shapes of fonts in text. FontCode creates font perturbations, using them to encode a message that can later be decoded to recover the message. The method works with most fonts and, unlike other text and document methods that hide embedded information, works with most document types, even maintaining the hidden information when the document is printed on paper or converted to another file type.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators - resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer.


A molecule adsorbed on a surface (Figure 1A) vibrates on the surface (Figure 1B). The vibration energy is determined by the mass of the molecule and by the restoring forces exerted on the molecule. The restoring force originates from the interaction within the molecule and with the surface. By measuring the vibration energy, therefore, we are able to learn details of the interaction of a molecule and a surface. This knowledge is useful in understanding important processes in applied sciences like catalytic reactions*1) that take place on a surface.

A new study has discovered that horses were first domesticated by descendants of hunter-gatherer groups in Kazakhstan who left little direct trace in the ancestry of modern populations. The research sheds new light on the long-standing "steppe theory" on the origin and movement of Indo-European languages made possible by the domestication of the horse.

The domestication of the horse was a milestone in human history that allowed people, their languages, and their ideas to move further and faster than before, leading both to widespread farming and to horse-powered warfare.