Researchers at the University of Sydney have applied quantum techniques to understanding the electrolysis of water, which is the application of an electric current to H2O to produce the constituent elements hydrogen and oxygen.

They found that electrons can 'tunnel' through barriers in aqueous solutions away from the electrodes, neutralising ions of impurities in that water. This can be detected in changes in current, which has applications for biosensing, the detection of biological elements in solution.

HIV patients and their doctors are urged to be more aware of the additional health risks associated with treated HIV infection. This follows new research that shows HIV patients at high risk for a heart attack or stroke are also at substantially greater risk for chronic kidney disease and vice versa.

MADISON - Researchers in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Biochemistry have discovered that a cellular pump known to move drugs like antibiotics out of E. coli bacteria has the potential to bring them in as well, opening new lines of research into combating the bacteria.

The discovery could rewrite almost 50 years of thinking about how these types of transporters function in the cell.

WASHINGTON, D.C., November 7, 2017 -- Electrical physicists from Czech Technical University have provided additional evidence that new current sensors introduce errors when assessing current through iron conductors. It's crucial to correct this flaw in the new sensors so that operators of the electrical grid can correctly respond to threats to the system. The researchers show how a difference in a conductor's magnetic permeability, the degree of material's magnetization response in a magnetic field, affects the precision of new sensors.

For several years, tension has been rising in line with the approaching commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic cells. Now, there has been another small earthquake: it turns out that devices based on these materials can convert solar energy into electricity even more efficiently! There is one condition: instead of producing perovskites by traditional solution methods, they should be produced by ... grinding.

Autonomous vehicles should only have to be moderately better than human drivers before being widely used in the United States, an approach that could save thousands of lives annually even before the technology is perfected, according to a new RAND Corporation report.

Want to restore hearing by injecting stem cells into the inner ear? Well, that can be a double-edged sword.

Inner ear stem cells can be converted to auditory neurons that could reverse deafness, but the process can also make those cells divide too quickly, posing a cancer risk, according to a study led by Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists.

Some expectant parents play classical music for their unborn babies, hoping to boost their children's cognitive capacity later in life. While some research supported a link between prenatal sound exposure and improved brain function, scientists had not identified any structures responsible for this link in the developing brain.

Vision scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Toronto have discovered that naturally occurring molecules known as lipid mediators have the potential to halt the progression of glaucoma, the world's second-leading cause of blindness.

Their findings, to be published Nov. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, mark a major step forward in the pursuit of a cure for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease in which fluid buildup in the frontal eye causes irreversible damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

ITHACA, N.Y. - The concept of "valence" - the ability of a particular atom to combine with other atoms by exchanging electrons - is one of the cornerstones of modern chemistry and solid-state physics.

Valence controls crucial properties of molecules and materials, including their bonding, crystal structure, and electronic and magnetic properties.