Culture

Government and industry efforts since 2003 to phase out chemicals used to make non-stick coatings, such as Teflon, have prevented more than 118,000 low-weight births and related brain damage in the United States.

This is the main finding of a new report -- based on analysis of new mothers' blood samples gathered for a national health study -- published Nov. 23 in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.

CHICAGO - School-age football players with a history of concussion and high impact exposure undergo brain changes after one season of play, according to two new studies conducted at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem and presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Too little rain, or too much, is often a driver of poverty and hunger, leading to poor nutrition and food insecurity among vulnerable populations. According to a new study, rainfall patterns also provide clues on how to most effectively alleviate food insecurity.

A detailed comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee and macaque brains reveals elements that make the human brain unique, including cortical circuits underlying production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. To pinpoint differences among primate brains, André M. M. Sousa et al. evaluated brain tissue samples from six humans, five chimpanzees, and five macaques. They generated transcriptional profiles of 247 tissue samples in total, representing several different brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus, cerebellar cortex, and neocortex).

The same bacteria present in primary tumors of patients with colorectal cancer are also present in liver metastases, a new study finds. What's more, presence of the bacteria was found to correlate with tumor growth. Previous studies have found an abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum in human colon cancers. To explore whether colon cancer that has spread to other parts of the body also harbors the bacteria, Susan Bullman et al. analyzed samples of primary tumors and corresponding liver metastases in colon cancer patients.

CAMBRIDGE, MA -- Babies as young as 10 months can assess how much someone values a particular goal by observing how hard they are willing to work to achieve it, according to a new study from MIT and Harvard University.

This ability requires integrating information about both the costs of obtaining a goal and the benefit gained by the person seeking it, suggesting that babies acquire very early an intuition about how people make decisions.

Original concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis (OA) in Dolly the sheep are unfounded, say experts at the University of Nottingham and the University of Glasgow.

The team, who published last year's Nottingham Dollies research which showed that the 8 year-old Nottingham 'Dollies' had aged normally, have now published a radiographic assessment of the skeletons of Dolly herself, Bonnie (her naturally conceived daughter) and Megan and Morag (the first two animals to be cloned from differentiated cells).

Cooperatively breeding birds and fish may have evolved the adaptive ability to reduce the size of their eggs when helpers are available to lighten the parental load, a new study suggests. The findings indicate that in some species, the social environment may influence female reproductive decisions even prior to the birth of offspring.

Testing for fever, high pulse rate, crackly breath sounds, and low oxygen levels could be key to helping GPs distinguish pneumonia from less serious infections, according to a large study published in the European Respiratory Journal[1].

Pneumonia is a severe lung infection that can be life-threatening and often requires treatment with antibiotics. However, it is notoriously difficult to discriminate from more common viral infections, against which antibiotics are ineffective.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)--the human equivalent of mad cow disease--is caused by rogue, misfolded protein aggregates termed prions, which are infectious and cause fatal damages in the patient's brain. CJD patients develop signature microscopic sponge-like holes in their brains. The initial signs of CJD include memory loss, behavior changes, movement disorder, and vision problems, which usually rapidly progress to death. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 90 percent of CJD patients die within one year of onset, and hundreds of Americans are diagnosed annually.