Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago describe a new technique for precisely measuring the temperature and behavior of new two-dimensional materials that will allow engineers to design smaller and faster microprocessors. Their findings are reported in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Are the U.S. East Coast's salt marshes healthy? How do sea ice patterns affect penguin populations in Antarctica? What diet do blue whales off California specialize in? Is every El Niño the same?

As the oceans continue to change in unprecedented ways, the annual Ocean Sciences Meeting (OSM) has become an important venue for exchanging new insights into these and other questions about marine ecosystems.

Microtubules (roads made of proteins) extend throughout a cell for motor proteins (carriers) to deliver neuronal cargo packed with many kinds of materials required for life activity. The delivery is active along neuronal axons, which function like highways in human societies. Deficits in the cargo delivery cause neuronal diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or Huntington's disease.

A team of scientists from Kirensky Institute of Physics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science and Siberian Federal University (SFU) together with Russian and foreign colleagues studied the droplets of a cholesteric liquid crystal that contained a twisted defect loop. The results of the study were published in Scientific Reports journal.

LAWRENCE -- On a ho-hum day some 12,800 years ago, the Earth had emerged from another ice age. Things were warming up, and the glaciers had retreated.

Out of nowhere, the sky was lit with fireballs. This was followed by shock waves.

Fires rushed across the landscape, and dust clogged the sky, cutting off the sunlight. As the climate rapidly cooled, plants died, food sources were snuffed out, and the glaciers advanced again. Ocean currents shifted, setting the climate into a colder, almost "ice age" state that lasted an additional thousand years.

NEW YORK, NY (February 1, 2018)-- Neurons, or nerve cells, in the brain communicate with each other by transmitting electric signals, or firing action potentials, through long processes named axons (which send out signals) and dendrites (which receive signals). The capability of firing action potentials, among other functions of mature neurons, has to be acquired during development and neuronal maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this complex process are so far poorly understood.

A new study aiming to provide a better understanding of how injection wells in the U.S. influence earthquake activity cites wastewater injection depth, not purely rate or volume, as a critical factor. The results suggest that efforts to restrict injection depths to certain distances above the so-called crystalline basement layer could reduce earthquake hazard. Earthquakes can be induced by industrial processes, a fact established decades ago. Since 2009, when seismicity in the U.S.

Directly following the last ice age, people from the western parts of what is now Norway were a population that had substantially different genetics from the people living in the area corresponding to present-day Sweden.

"We were surprised that the results showed such marked dissimilarities," says associate professor and archaeologist Birgitte Skar at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) University Museum. Skar is responsible for the museum's Stone Age and Bronze Age collections.

A rare 200 million-year-old ichthyosaur specimen has been discovered in a private collection 22 years after it was originally found.

The fossil is only the second example of Wahlisaurus massarae, a new species of ichthyosaur discovered by The University of Manchester palaeontologist, Dean Lomax. This fossil was originally found in 1996 and has now been donated to a museum.