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Researchers at the University of New Hampshire studied the journey of magma, or molten rock, in one of Europe's largest and most active volcanoes, Mount Etna. They applied several techniques to create a more accurate picture of the volcano's plumbing system and how quickly the magma rises to the top to cause an eruption. Their findings contribute to our understanding of how and when volcanoes erupt.
Designing new therapeutic DNA aptamers with diverse side chains can improve their ability to interact with targets, and a new study describes characteristics of these side chains that may determine how long the aptamers remain in the bloodstream.
Although magnitude 6 earthquakes occur about every 25 years along the Parkfield Segment of the San Andreas Fault, geophysical data suggest that the seismic slip induced by those magnitude 6 earthquakes alone does not match the long-term slip rates on this part of the San Andreas fault, researchers report November 28 in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA).
Finnish speakers showed an advantage in auditory duration processing compared to German speakers in a recent doctoral study on auditory processing of sound in people with different linguistic and musical backgrounds. In Finnish speakers, musical expertise was associated with enhanced behavioral frequency discrimination.
Mums-to-be living in war zones/areas of armed conflict are at heightened risk of giving birth to low birthweight babies. However the evidence for any impact on the rate of other complications of pregnancy is less clear.That's the findings of a review of the available evidence conducted by the University of Warwick and published in the online journal BMJ Global Health.
A decade of data on hundreds of boys and girls who received the HPV vaccine indicates the vaccine is safe and effective long term in protecting against the most virulent strains of the virus, researchers report.The findings support more widespread and early administration of the HPV vaccine before preadolescents and adolescents are exposed to the nation's most common sexually transmitted infection and the most common cause of cervical cancer, they report in the journal Pediatrics.
All liquids always contain gases in a greater or lesser concentration, depending on the pressure and temperature to which it is subjected. Almost always, these gases end up as more or less small bubbles on the surface of the liquid. When these bubbles explode, especially if they are microscopic, minuscule drops are expelled at great velocity, and these drops almost instantly travel notable distances from the surface of the liquid that they came from.
Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream could be reality in just a few years' time. An international research team working with Empa has now succeeded in producing nanotransistors from graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, as reported in the current issue of the trade journal Nature Communications.
Small amounts of artificial vanilla extract, also known as vanillin, are in a wide range of products, from baked goods to perfumes. But vanillin's versatility doesn't stop there. In a recent mouse study reported in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers report that this compound could also prevent or reduce psoriatic skin inflammation.
An employee whose personality traits closely match the traits that are ideal for her job is likely to earn more than an employee whose traits are less aligned, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Cattle, swine and poultry contribute a hefty portion to the average American's diet, but raising all this livestock comes at a cost to the environment: The industry produces a lot of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Just how much gas the animals release, however, is the subject of debate. Now, one group reports in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology that a new approach could shed light on how accurate current data are.
Simple paper-strip testing has the potential to tell us quickly what's in water, and other liquid samples from food, the environment and bodies -- but current tests don't handle solid samples well. Now researchers have developed a way to make these low-cost devices more versatile and reliable for analyzing both liquid and solid samples using adhesive tape. They report their approach in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.
Researchers at the California Institute of Technology have developed an approach to overcome a major stumbling block in testing new drug targets. The research is reported in a Nov. 24 paper in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
A newly developed microscope is providing scientists with a greatly enhanced tool to study how neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease affect neuron communication.
To find a link between seemingly disparate disordered materials and their behavior under stress, an interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the School of Arts and Sciences and School of Engineering and Applied Science studied an unprecedented range of disordered solids with constituent particles ranging from individual atoms to river rocks. Understanding materials failure on this fundamental level could be key for designing more shatter-resistant glasses or predicting geological phenomena like landslides.
Low vitamin D levels at birth were associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) at the age of 3 years in a recent Journal of Bone and Mineral Research study.
For humans, the loss of limbs is almost always an irreversible catastrophe. Many animals, however, are not only able to heal wounds but even to replace whole body parts. Biologists from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have now been able to prove for the first time that comb jellyfish can switch between two completely different self-healing processes depending on the environmental conditions. The study has been published in the international journal Scientific Reports.
In quantum materials, periodic stripe patterns can be formed by electrons coupled with lattice distortions. To capture the extremely fast dynamics of how such atomic-scale stripes melt and form, Berkeley Lab scientists used femtosecond-scale laser pulses at terahertz frequencies. Along the way, they found some unexpected behavior.
Mental illness associated with early childhood adversity may be passed from generation to generation, according to a study of adults whose parents evacuated Finland as children during World War II. The study was conducted by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, Uppsala University in Sweden, and Helsinki University in Finland. It appears in JAMA Psychiatry.
A group of physicists has demonstrated a highly unusual optical effect: They managed to 'virtually' absorb light using a material that has no light-absorbing capacity. The research findings, published in Optica, break new ground for the creation of memory elements for light.