Science2.0

Transverse Field Detectors Gather 12 Times More Information Than The Human Eye

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 4:28pm

A new imaging system is capable of obtaining up to twelve times more color information than the human eye and conventional cameras, which implies a total of 36 color channels.

The system involves a new generation of sensors in combination with a matrix of multispectral filters to improve their performance. 


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A Science 2.0 Approach To Knowledge Sharing In The Healthcare Sector

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 4:01pm

Social network analysis could improve knowledge sharing in the healthcare sector, according to a paper which shows how knowledge management systems (KMS) can be critical in capturing, retaining and communicating project results and staff knowledge. They can prevent knowledge drain and provide training as "lessons learned" following specific occurrences and the resolution of particular problems the staff face.


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Soap Is Safe: Large Study Shows Surfactants Do Not Harm The Environment

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 3:23pm

When you take a shower and use soap and then lather, rinse and repeat twice with that shampoo, it gets washed off your body and goes down the drain.

Environmentalists have claimed these soaps and shampoos and washing machine detergents - surfactants - seep into groundwater, lakes and streams, where they could pose a risk to fish and frogs.

But do they? Not likely, finds a new report of the potential impact on the environment of the enormous amounts of common surfactants used day in and day out by consumers all over the world. 


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Children Need To Play Outdoors, But We're Not Letting Them

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 2:02pm

Evidence shows children are getting less unsupervised time outdoors. Credit: Brian Yap (葉)/Flickr, CC BY-NC

By Shelby Gull Laird and Laura McFarland-Piazza

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Hippocrates Didn't Write The Oath, So Why Is He The Father Of Medicine?

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 1:00pm

Not the one we have fixed in our imaginations. Peter Paul Rubens, 1638

By Helen King, The Open University

Hippocrates is considered the father of medicine, enemy of superstition, pioneer of rationality and fount of eternal wisdom.

Statues and drawings show him with a furrowed brow, thinking hard about how to heal his patients.

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Blackflies Implicated In Nodding Syndrome

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 12:30pm
Though it has been researched for decades, the cause of nodding syndrome, a disabling disease affecting African children, is unknown. A new report suggests that blackflies infected with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus may be capable of passing on a secondary pathogen responsible for the spread of the disease. 

Concentrated in South Sudan, Northern Uganda, and Tanzania, nodding syndrome is a debilitating and deadly disease that affects young children between the ages of 5 and 15. When present, the first indication of the disease is an involuntary nodding of the head, followed by epileptic seizures. The condition can cause cognitive deterioration, stunted growth, and in some cases, death.
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What Do World University Rankings Actually Mean?

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 12:00pm

In third place, Oxford University is the top UK institution in the World University Rankings 2014-15. Image:  Andrew Matthews/PA Archive

By Steven C. Ward, Western Connecticut State University

From the “best beaches” to the “best slice of pizza” to the best hospital to have cardiac surgery in, we are inundated with a seemingly never-ending series of reports ranking everything that can be ranked and even things that probably shouldn’t be.

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Something New On The Illusion Of Time

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 10:08am

Look at a fan rotating its blades. Now look somewhat to the side of it. It seems to rotate slower now. Now shift your gaze slowly back toward the center of the fan. The fan seems to pick up speed. There are not just two appearances of its speed, one fast if I stare at it, and one slow if it is in the periphery of my visual field, but instead the fan seems to pick up speed gradually!

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Fossilized Bite Marks Show How Ancient Reptiles Battled Across Land And Water

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 2:06am

Phytosaur: still got it. Credit: BFS Man, CC BY

By Stephanie Drumheller, University of Tennessee; Michelle Stocker, Virginia Tech, and Sterling Nesbitt, Virginia Tech

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10 Mistakes We All Make When Interpreting Research

Science2.0 - October 3, 2014 - 1:27am

Oh no – not that mistake again. Credit: Flickr/Alex Proimos, CC BY-NC

By Will J Grant, Australian National University and Rod Lamberts, Australian National University

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In A Bad Mood? Someone Is Worse Off On Facebook - And You'll Find Them

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 6:00pm

Call it cathartic but one modern way people in a bad mood feel better is to go on social media like Facebook and find friends doing even worse.

A new paper says that generally people use social media to connect with people who are posting positive and success-oriented updates. No one wants to hang out with downers - unless they are in a bad mood. Then people want to read about less attractive, less successful and more miserable people. The authors believe the
findings give more context to recent papers stating that found people who spend a lot of time on Facebook tend to be more frustrated, angry and lonely – presumably because of all the happy updates from friends that make them feel inadequate. 


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Ibuprofen: Less Inflammation Makes Old Lungs Seem Young Again

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 3:42pm

A new study has found that lungs become more inflammatory with age and that ibuprofen can lower that inflammation - and the difference can be dramatic.

Immune cells from old mouse lungs, after lung inflammation was reduced by ibuprofen, fought tuberculosis bacteria as effectively as cells from young mice. The ibuprofen had no effect on the immune response to TB in young mice. The researchers already knew that old mice had a harder time clearing TB from the lungs than young mice, but had not investigated the role of lung inflammation in that response. 


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Evolutionary Imbalance: Darwin Was Right About Invasive Species

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 3:01pm

The idea of evolutionary imbalance when it comes to invasive species is not new, Charles Darwin articulated it. 

The concept is that species from regions with deep and diverse evolutionary histories are more likely to become successful invaders in regions with less deep, less diverse evolutionary histories. Darwin's original insight was that the more challenges a region's species have faced in their evolution, the more robust they'll be in new environments.

To predict the probability of invasiveness, ecologists
Dov Sax of Brown University and Jason Fridley of Syracuse University


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The Voices Of Fish Larvae Recorded

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 2:18pm

Researchers recently used audio and video recording tools to record larval orientation behavior in the pelagic environment. 

In their field experiment, the scientists put the recording devices i a drifting in situ chamber called DISC  near Fowey Rocks lighthouse in the northern Florida Keys. In total 58 deployments were conducted, 27 during the day and 31 at night. The team also recorded sounds in a laboratory setting to confirm that the sounds observed in the field were from gray snapper larvae. The researchers also referred to the public sound archive at the Macaulay Library to compare the larval sounds to those produced by adult L. griseus.


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The Role Of Brain Connectivity In Pain Inhibition And Fibromyalgia

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 1:30pm
Fibromyalgia is a symptom-based disorder that manifests itself as chronic pain. Its underlying causes are unknown.

The results of a new study compares brain activity in individuals with and without fibromyalgia and indicate that decreased connectivity between pain-related and sensorimotor brain areas could contribute to deficient pain regulation in fibromyalgia, according to an article published in Brain Connectivity.

In the new study by Pär Flodin and coauthors from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, they add on to previous findings from other fibromyalgia papers that used brain imaging and found abnormal neuronal activity in the brain associated with poor pain inhibition.
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5 Ways To Stop The World’s Wildlife From Vanishing

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 1:00pm

Going, going, gone: wildlife like the loris are disappearing. Credit: N. A. Naseer, CC BY-NC-ND

By Paul Jepson, University of Oxford

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Sharks Have Personalities

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 12:30pm

Some sharks are more 'gregarious' than others and have strong social connections while others are solitary and prefer to remain inconspicuous. That's not an exception, according to a new study, these notorious predators have personality traits.

Personalities obviously exist in many animals but they are usually defined by individual characteristics such as how exploratory, bold or aggressive an individual animal is. The paper in
the journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology involved testing for social personality by recording the social interactions of groups of juvenile small spotted catsharks in captivity under three different habitat types.  


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Cosmic Dust, Fish-Inspired Wind Farms And DARPA's Quest For The New GPS

Science2.0 - October 2, 2014 - 12:00pm
We are stardust - scientists and citizen scientists alike

Physics Today's Ashley Smart describes a huge recent win for citizen science: some 30,000 volunteers pored over millions of microscopic images looking for dust collected a decade ago by NASA's Stardust probe, and their efforts have helped identify candidate interstellar grains:
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Free Birth Control Reduces Both Teen Pregnancies And Abortions

Science2.0 - October 1, 2014 - 11:30pm

Abortion and teen pregnancy dropped among teens who received free contraception and were educated about the pros and cons of various birth control methods, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine.


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