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Small Is Ugly 2

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 9:16am

The very small is very weird; I explained that the last time in Small Is Ugly 1 already with help of the example of water being in the driest of places (Vastness and Fastness of the Small helps Evolution is of course somewhat related). And today, I still do not mean supposed "quantum weirdness", which is not about small stuff.

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For Obese People, Bariatric Surgery Is Not A Magic Wand To Curb Depression

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 2:00am

There's a common trope in Hollywood celebrities who gain weight and receive attention for it. They talk about how much healthier and better they feel about themselves at higher weight - and then they immediately lose weight and talk about how much healthier and better they feel about themselves.

Severely obese people who aren't famous also experience much better spirits once they shed weight through diet, lifestyle changes or medical intervention but Valentina Ivezaj and Carlos Grilo of the Yale University School of Medicine write in Obesity Surgery that it is not a psychological magic bullet.


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No Drugs Needed: Talk Therapy Best For Social Anxiety Disorder

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 1:31am

Antidepressants are the most commonly used treatment for social anxiety disorder but we know they don't work for many people and their efficacy goes down over time.

New research finds they are not even needed in many instances. 

Social anxiety disorder is a condition characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations. It affects as many as 13 percent of the Western world. For most people, it is not severe, and they never receive treatment for the disorder but those who do get treatment are usually assigned medication.


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Healthy Food Might Be Bad For Patients – Here’s Why

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 9:30pm

Healthy food might be bad for patients. Food for thought. Photo by By Amanda Squire, Cardiff Metropolitan University

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Artificial Photosynthesis Could Turn CO2 Into Renewable Energy

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 9:01pm

The appeal of artificial photosynthesis, in which the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is used to produce clean, green and sustainable fuels, is that we can turn an atmospheric byproduct into a renewable energy technology.

However, finding a catalyst for reducing carbon dioxide that is highly selective and efficient has proven to be a huge scientific challenge.

Peidong Yang, a chemist with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division, led a study in which bimetallic nanoparticles of gold and copper were used as the catalyst for the carbon dioxide reduction. The results experimentally revealed for the first time the critical influence of the electronic and geometric effects in the reduction reaction.


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126,000 Reasons Why The Emma Watson Hoax Isn't All Bad News

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 8:30pm

UN Women Goodwill Ambassador and actor Emma Watson launched the HeForShe Campaign at the United Nations headquarters in New York, September 20th. Credit: EPA/JASON SZENES

By Evita March, Federation University Australia

In less than a week since actor Emma Watson’s stirring United Nations speech on gender inequality, two big things have happened – but you’ve probably only heard about one of them.

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5 Ways The Superintelligence Revolution Might Happen

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 8:30pm

Taking over one neuron at a time. Credit: viipeer, CC BY-NC-SA

By Nick Bostrom, University of Oxford

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Couvade Syndrome: Why Some Men Develop Signs Of Pregnancy

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 8:00pm

Sympathetic or jealous? Credit: Belly by Shutterstock

By Arthur Brennan, St George's, University of London

Harry Ashby, the 29-year-old security guard who was signed off work with morning sickness, cravings, a growing stomach and breasts during his girlfriend’s pregnancy, was told he had Couvade syndrome.

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New Kind Of Organic Molecule Found In Milky Way’s Interstellar Medium

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 8:00pm

Surprises in the dark. Credit: NASA GSFC, CC BY

By Rene Breton, University of Southampton

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Levallois Technique Rethink: Stone Age Tools Not African Invention

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 7:24pm

A new discovery of thousands of Stone Age tools has provided a major rethink about human innovation 325,000 years ago - and how early technological developments spread across the world. 

The researchers found evidence which challenges the belief that a type of technology known as Levallois – where the flakes and blades of stones were used to make useful products such as hunting weapons – was invented in Africa and then spread to other continents as the human population expanded.

They discovered at an archaeological site in Armenia that these types of tools already existed there between 325,000 and 335,000 years ago, suggesting that local populations developed them out of a more basic type of technology, known as biface, which was also found at the site.


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Strategy Or Chance? How The Brain Decides

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 6:00pm

Many of the choices we make are informed by experiences we've had in the past but we know that sometimes it is better to throw all that out and take a risk on something new.

Scientists at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Research Campus have shown that the brain can temporarily disconnect information about past experience from decision-making circuits, thereby triggering random behavior. 


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Robotics: 555 Timer H-Bridge

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 5:53pm
You can build a simple circuit using two 555 Timer ICs to create an H-bridge that will drive a single motor in forward or reverse. An H-bridge circuit is often used in robotics to reverse the polarity of a motor. For example, if the motor is spinning in the forward direction, the robot will move forward and when the polarity of the motor is reversed, the motor will spin in the opposite direction and the robot will move backward.

The diagram of the circuit resembles the letter “H” where the motor is the cross-bar and four switches form the legs.


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New Formula Could Mean “Greener” Cement

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 5:01pm
Concrete is the world’s most-used construction material and thus a leading contributor to global warming, producing perhaps 10 percent of industry-generated greenhouse-gas emissions.

Industry is already reducing greenhouse emissions, such as by using more natural gas and less coal to generate cost-effective electricity, and a new suggests another low-impact way go green - reducing concrete emissions by more than half and getting a stronger, more durable material using science rather than rationing.
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The Growing Threat To Grassland Is Trees

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 5:01pm

Mother Nature may be out to kill us but we shouldn't take it personally. She is out to kill everything. We just never noticed in the past. 

Today, thanks to long-term science projects, we can see how nature pits species off against each other. And biologists are studying streams to optimize how to prevent tallgrass prairies from turning into shrublands and forests.


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Yoga, Meditation Participants Control Computers With Their Minds Better

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 4:13pm

People who practice yoga and meditation long term can learn to control a computer with their minds faster and better than people with little or no yoga or meditation experience, find biomedical engineers at the University of Minnesota writing in TECHNOLOGY.


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DDO 68: A Galaxy Of Deception

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 4:00pm

The nice thing about telescopes is that we can look back in time - light that is reaching us now may have originated a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, which means astronomers can view the universe as it was when it was much younger.

But sometimes we can be fooled by entire galaxies. DDO 68, otherwise known as UGC 5340, a ragged collection of stars and gas clouds, at first was thought to be a recently-formed galaxy in our own cosmic neighborhood.


But it's not as young as it looks. 


A cosmic oddity, dwarf galaxy DDO 68. Credit: NASA, ESA. Acknowledgement: A. Aloisi (Space Telescope Science Institute)


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Why Perfectionists Are At Higher Risk For Suicide

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 3:45pm

For some people, their own standard is much more demanding that anything the outside world could expect. Perfectionism is a bigger risk factor in suicide than it is credited for, says York University Psychology Professor Gordon Flett, who is calling for closer attention to its potential destructiveness, adding that clinical guidelines should include perfectionism as a separate factor for suicide risk assessment and intervention.


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Evolutionary Psychology: Why Women Like Older Men And Men Like Younger Women

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 3:16pm

A new evolutionary psychology paper says that men and women have different age preferences regarding sexual partners - but it's primarily women realize their preferences. 


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HPV Vaccination Lasts Longer Than Believed

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 2:47pm

The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been controversial in both the United States and European countries like Germany. It prevents about 70% of cervical cancers, cervical cancer is uncommon and highly treatable, and it will need another vaccine before girls who are given it even become adults. Along with those data issues, academic scientists and the public have been engaged in a culture war against pharmaceutical companies - that vaccines are exempt from ordinary lawsuits and that the vaccine was marketed heavily just after an expensive settlement by manufacturer Merck was not lost on the public.


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