Science2.0

Macrophages As T-Cell Immune Response Primers

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 7:58pm
A new study demonstrates that macrophages can effectively substitute for so-called dendritic cells as primers of T-cell-dependent immune responses. They instead stimulate a broader-based response.

The immune response, the process by which the adaptive immune system reacts to, and eliminates foreign substances and cells, depends on a complex interplay between several different cell types. So-called dendritic cells, which recognize and internalize invasive pathogens, play a crucial role in this process.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

After Andreas Lubitz, Should Pilots Have Less Medical Privacy?

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 7:36pm

Since it was revealed that Andreas Lubitz – the co-pilot who purposefully crashed Germanwings Flight 9525, killing 150 people – had been treated for psychiatric illness, a debate has ensued over whether privacy laws regarding medical records should be less strict when it comes to professions that carry special responsibilities.

It has been widely argued that Germany’s privacy laws were to blame for the tragedy. The Times, for example, headlined an article: “German obsession with privacy let killer pilot fly.” Similarly, another article published in TIME said “German privacy laws let pilot ‘hide’ his illness from employers.”

-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Higher-Order Executive Function Went Into Making A Stone Age Axe

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 6:58pm
 Stone tools, shaped by striking a stone "core" with a piece of bone, antler, or another stone, provide some of the most abundant evidence of human behavioral change over time. Simple Oldowan stone flakes are the earliest things considered tools, dating back 2.6 million years, and the Late Acheulean hand axe goes back 500,000 years.

While it's relatively easy to learn to make an Oldowan flake, the Acheulean hand axe is harder to master, due to its lens-shaped core tapering down to symmetrical edges. 
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Iceberg Armadas Didn't Cause North Atlantic Cooling

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 6:35pm
Though some studies have linked icebergs to abrupt climate change cycles during the last glacial period - by introducing fresh water to the surface of the ocean and changing ocean currents, which changes climate - new findings present a contradictory narrative and suggest that icebergs generally arrived too late to trigger marked cooling across the North Atlantic.

Abrupt climate change, characterized by transitions between warm and cold conditions across the North Atlantic, is a pervasive feature of the Late Pleistocene - the most recent period of repeated glacial cycles. 
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

The Victorian Era Got Juvenile Crime Right

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 3:58pm
To modern cultural sensibilities, "Victorian" means 'repressed' because it seemed overly formal to people that want to wear flip-flops into the office, yet they clearly got some things right.(1)

The name derives from the reign of Queen Victoria in the United Kingdom in the latter half of the 19th century, a time when England ruled the western world culturally and every region militarily. The Victorian Era brought with it with the creation of a paid police force(2) rather than the local constable system that had been around since the Tudors. (3) 
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Accurate Thermoluminescence Dating - Calibration Down To The Last Ion

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 2:26pm
Thermoluminescence is used on sediment 'grains', which function as natural radiation dosimeters when buried with defects or impurities, to determine age. The valid range is 1,000 to 500,000 years and the technique is used extensively in archeology and earth sciences to date artifacts and rocks.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

E-Cigarettes: Better Than Smoking But Still Have Risk

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 2:00pm

E-cigarettes, battery-powered devices that heat a liquid nicotine solution, have been sold in the United States since 2007 and are marketed as an option to help smokers kick the habit.  Instead of a nicotine patch or chewing gum, e-cigarette users inhale the vapor.

It's obviously safer than smoking but anti-cigarette advocates in the United States of America are also against this 'vaping' because of the presence of cigarette companies as investors. Originally, smoking awareness was to get people to get rid of smoking but a campaign against a smoking cessation product means it is more of a desire to get rid of certain companies.

-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Signaling Pathway Of Rare Form Of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Discovered

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 1:23pm

A systematic review of the genomes of patients with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a particularly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, shows that many cases of the disease are driven by alterations in the JAK/STAT3 cell signaling pathway. The study also demonstrates, in mice implanted with human-derived ALCL tumors, that the disease can be inhibited by compounds that target this pathway, raising hopes that more effective treatments might soon be developed. 


read more

Categories: Science2.0

Abell 3827: Self-Interacting Dark Matter 5,000 Lght-Years Away?

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 1:18pm

A team of astronomers studied the simultaneous collision of four galaxies in the galaxy cluster Abell 3827 and could trace out where the mass lies within the system and compare the distribution of the dark matter with the positions of the luminous galaxies.

Although dark matter cannot be seen, the team could deduce its location using a technique called gravitational lensing. The collision happened to take place directly in front of a much more distant, unrelated source. The mass of dark matter around the colliding galaxies severely distorted spacetime, deviating the path of light rays coming from the distant background galaxy -- and distorting its image into characteristic arc shapes.


-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Is Carbon Farming The Right Approach At The Right Price?

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 1:00pm

Climate change and the loss of biodiversity are two of the greatest environmental issues of our time. Is it possible to address both of those problems at once?

In Australia, farmers and landholders will this week be able to apply for payments through the Federal government’s A$2.55 billion Emissions Reduction Fund. Bidders can request funding for projects that reduce emissions using agreed methods, which include approaches relevant to the transport, waste and mining sectors, as well as the land sector: for example, by managing or restoring forests.

-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Quorum Sensing And Regeneration Response: Cure Baldness By Pulling Out Hair

Science2.0 - April 15, 2015 - 3:05am

Shaved heads have come in and out of fashion over the past few decades, but some people don’t have the option of allowing their locks to grow.

Thankfully, for those who do suffer from hair loss, or alopecia, help may be at hand. Somewhat counter-intuitively an effective treatment for baldness may come from plucking a certain number of hairs – in a specific formation – from the scalp.

-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Ground And Space Telescope Microlensing Combine To Find Distant Planet

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 8:29pm
A remote gas planet has been detected about 13,000 light-years away, making it one of the most distant planets known.

The Poland-based Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile scans the skies for planets using a method called microlensing. A microlensing event occurs when one star happens to pass in front of another, and its gravity acts as a lens to magnify and brighten the more distant star's light. If that foreground star happens to be orbited by a planet, the planet might cause a blip in the magnification. For a new study in Astrophysical Journal the researchers combined that with data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Virtual Money Puts A Price On Natural Ecosystem Services In Agriculture

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 8:12pm
Like virtual water and virtual emissions, looking at organic food through a prism of implicit benefits translated into estimated dollars makes it look a lot more economically viable than it otherwise might appear.

The new estimate says that organic farming systems do a better job of capitalizing on nature's services than they are credited with, and natural processes that aid farming and that can substitute for costly fossil fuel-based inputs are cost-effective.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

What Just 5 Days Of Eating Fatty Food Does To Your Muscles

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 5:21pm
A new study has found that after just five days of eating a high-fat diet, the way in which the body's muscle processes nutrients changes.

When food is eaten, the level of glucose in the blood rises. The body's muscle is a major clearinghouse for this glucose. It may break it down for energy, or it can store it for later use. Since muscle makes up about 30 percent of our body weight and it is such an important site for glucose metabolism, if normal metabolism is altered, it can have consequences on the rest of the body and can lead to health issues.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Why Protest Clean Multi-Cultural White-Collar Astronomy Jobs?

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 5:12pm
Having once lived in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, on occasion I would drive to those old gigantic relics of steel mills.

They were behemoths and so were the buildings that housed them. They looked like they could block out the sun. In John Ford's "The Quiet Man", a native of Ireland asked John Wayne's character what they feed men in Pittsburgh that makes them so big and Wayne replied, "Steel, and pig-iron furnaces so hot a man forgets his fear of hell". In the early 1950s it was a job for hard men.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

How To Make Boxing Safer

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 4:00pm

The tragic death recently of a young Queensland boxer raised the question of safety in the sport and whether boxing should be banned.

Claims that boxing is safer than a number of very popular and well-accepted sports warrant careful scrutiny as they often derive from overly simplistic analyses.

The risks associated with boxing should never be trivialized, but science and technology could possibly help to mitigate them.

-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

OEH - Hormone Receptor That Allows Mosquitoes To Reproduce Found

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 3:04pm

 By identifying and comparing the sequences of more than 400 receptors in the genomes of two fruit flies and three mosquito species, entomologists have unlocked one of the hormonal mechanisms that allow mosquitoes to produce eggs. They identified a single gene for a receptor with an unknown function within the species distribution.  


read more

Categories: Science2.0

'Warm Blob' In Pacific Ocean Linked To Weird Weather

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 3:00pm

The one common element in recent American weather has been its diversity. The West Coast has been drier than usual while the East Coast has had more snow. Fish are swimming into new waters and so hungry seals that don't follow them aare washing up on California beaches. 

A long-lived patch of warm water off the West Coast, about 1 to 4 degrees Celsius (2 to 7 degrees Fahrenheit) above normal, is part of what's wreaking much of this mayhem, according to two papers Geophysical Research Letters. No, that warm blob was not caused by climate change, though it has many of the same effects for West Coast weather. 


-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Genetically Engineered Salmonella For Anti-cancer Therapy

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 2:22pm
On one side of the political spectrum in America and across a broader swath of Europe, science is controversial - especially genetic engineering. But genetic engineering has been done since humans first deduced they could shape the natural world, if anything it has gotten precise in a way that was never possible before.

Now it mean even help fight against cancer - and it may do so using Salmonella, more famous as a bacteria that lives in intestines.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0

Antibiotics Is To Politics As Oil Is To Water

Science2.0 - April 14, 2015 - 1:36pm

This week Hilary Clinton and Marco Rubio announced their candidacies for President of the United States. This puts them alongside Jeb Bush, Scott Walker and I’m not sure who else.

One thing all these candidates have in common is that not one of them has mentioned antibiotics – at least as far as I know. Do any of you know anything different?

So here we are. Antibiotic resistance is killing a minimum of 23,000 Americans every year according to the CDC. (I think that is a gross underestimate of reality.) The FDA just published a study showing large increase in antibiotic use on US farms – but they don’t know how or why the antibiotics are used.
-->

read more

Categories: Science2.0