Science2.0

Teens With Medical Marijuana Cards Much Likelier To Say They're Addicted

Science2.0 - July 29, 2015 - 1:00pm

A new University of Michigan study finds that teens using marijuana for medical reasons are 10 times more likely to say they are hooked on marijuana than youth who get marijuana illegally.

The study is the first to report on a nationally representative sample of 4,394 high school seniors and their legal or illegal medical marijuana use as it relates to other drug use. In the study, 48 teens had medical marijuana cards, but 266 teens used medical marijuana without a card.


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Varying Animal Research Standards Are Leading To Bad Science

Science2.0 - July 29, 2015 - 12:30pm
Scientific research sometimes requires the use of animals. It’s a fact. And as long as that is the case, we need to do everything in our power to minimize the distress for laboratory animals.

This is not just for the sake of the animals, but also for the sake of science itself. We know that the quality of life of an animal can actually affect its physiology and, thereby, the research data.

But unfortunately, the standards of animal care vary greatly across countries and even across research institutes. The time has come to overhaul this system and replace it with globally enforced rules.

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Will Aspartame Critics Now Be Less Bitter?

Science2.0 - July 29, 2015 - 11:30am

“I saw a werewolf with a Chinese menu in his hand,

Walkin' through the streets of Soho in the rain,

He was lookin' for the place called Lee Ho Fooks,

Gonna get a big dish of beef chow mein.”

Warren Zevon, 1978


" I saw Joe Mercola with the New York Times in his hand,

Looking for some way to explain,

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Half Of Biomedical Studies Aren't Reproducible – And What We Need To Do About That

Science2.0 - July 29, 2015 - 12:53am

What if I told you that half of the studies published in scientific journals today – the ones upon which news coverage of medical advances is often based – won’t hold up under scrutiny? You might say I had gone mad. No one would ever tolerate that kind of waste in a field as important – and expensive, to the tune of roughly US$30 billion in federal spending per year – as biomedical research, right? After all, this is the crucial work that hunts for explanations for diseases so they can better be treated or even cured.

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Selfishness Lasts A Lifetime

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 9:41pm

Researchers studying wild banded mongooses in Uganda have discovered that these small mammals have either cooperative or selfish personalities which last for their entire lifetime.

The researchers investigated the selfish behavior of mongoose mate-guarding - where dominant males guard particular females - and the cooperative behavior of 'babysitting' and 'escorting' the young.

They found that cooperative mongooses that helped out with offspring care did so consistently over their whole lifetime but those that put in little effort never increased their workload.

Similar consistent behavior was found in mongooses that selfishly guarded mates for their entire life.


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Residential Tourism Increases Earthquake Risk, Says Sociologist

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 2:30pm

Antonio Aledo, Professor of Sociology at the University of Alicante, warns that "because of real estate speculation and the management of public budgets based on income from the real estate business, seismic risk has been forgotten."

As an example, he used the town of Torrevieja, where one of the biggest earthquakes in the province of Alicante took place in 1829 with more than 389 dead and 209 wounded. And things would not be much better now.


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Why The Y Chromosome In Polar Bears Matters

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 1:30pm
Scientists have reconstructed part of the male chromosome in polar bears. They were able to assign 1.9 million base pairs specifically to the polar bear Y chromosome and show that more than 100,000 years ago, the male polar bear lineages split and developed in two separate genetic groups.

The polar bear is the world’s largest land-dwelling predator and is hard to miss. Nevertheless, it is difficult to study the evolution this arctic resident: Polar bears live and die on the frozen sea, and their remains are seldom found.

“In order to gain insights into the evolutionary development of Ursus maritimus, we use genetics instead of fossils,” explains Prof. Axel Janke of the Senckenberg Research Institute for Biodiversity and Climate in Frankfurt.
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Promising Prognosis: Cancer Deaths Continue To Fall

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 1:00pm

The rate of Australians dying from cancer is on a steady, downhill trajectory, thanks to powerful advances made in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. New data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare shows a promising outlook for those diagnosed with cancer.

Deaths from all cancers combined fell from 199 per 100,000 people in 1968, to 167 per 100,000 in 2012 - a decline of 2.6 deaths per 100,000 people per year.

“This confirms that we are steadily making improvements in most cancers, in terms of survival,” said Professor Timothy Hughes, Cancer Theme Leader at SAHMRI.

“And it’s coming from better prevention, better screening and better therapy.”

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Henry V's Agincourt Naval Fleet Smaller Than Previously Believed

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 1:00pm
The Battle of Agincourt, a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War, will have its 600th anniversary on October 25th, 2015, but they had actually landed in August.

How big was the fleet that carried the army? Henry V’s naval fleet, used to transport troops, was much smaller than previously thought, according to a historian. 
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How Did Mexico Eliminate Breast Cancer Deaths?

Science2.0 - July 28, 2015 - 12:30pm
In Mexico, breast cancer has been adequately controlled, and is no longer considered a risk of death when it’s diagnosed.

The disease is more common among women in the capital and the northern states, and is first in incidence of malignant neoplasms in females. It represents 11.34 percent of all cancer cases, and the increase is negligible. But in the United States the increase is five percent per year.
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New Results From The LHC At 13 TeV!

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 8:53pm
Well, as some of you may have heard, the restart of the LHC has not been as smooth as we had hoped. In a machine as complex as this the chance that something gets in the way of a well-followed schedule is quite significant. So there have been slight delays, but the important thing is that the data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy are coming, and the first results are being extracted from them.
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3D Printed ‘Smart Cap’ Can Detect Spoiled Food

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 8:28pm
3D printing technology can now include electrical components, such as resistors, inductors, capacitors and integrated wireless electrical sensing systems, and researchers have put that concept to the test by printing a wireless “smart cap” for a milk carton that detected signs of spoilage using embedded sensors.

Prosthetics, medical implants and toys are all fantastic but what had been missing from the repertoire until now was the ability to produce sensitive electronic components.
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'Selfish' Bacteria Link IBD And Gut Microbiota

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 5:27pm

The discovery of unusual foraging activity in bacteria species populating our gut may explain how conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) link to changes in the populations of bacteria in our gut. IBD affects 1 in every 250 people but its causes are unknown. Studies have shown that IBD patients have a different profile of gut microbes, which is called dysbiosis.

All of us have trillions of beneficial bacteria in our gut, but the combination of different species, known as the microbiome, varies. A crucial question has been whether IBD causes our microbiome to change, or whether an imbalanced microbiome could be triggering IBD. And exactly how does one affect the other? We need to study these interactions to define new targets for therapeutics.


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Bomb-Proof Lining Contains Explosions In Aircraft

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 2:00pm
A bomb-proof lining called the  Fly-Bag has successfully contained blasts in a series of controlled explosions in the luggage hold of a Boeing 747 and an Airbus 321. Using this technology, tests show plane’s luggage hold may be able to contain force of an explosion if a device hidden in a passenger’s luggage detonates

The Fly-Bag lines an aircraft’s luggage hold with multiple layers of novel fabrics and composites and was tested under increasing explosive charges on disused planes at Cotswolds Airport, near Cirencester, this week.
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Coryphopterus Curasub: A Fish Too Deep For Science

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 1:30pm

A new small goby fish differs from its relatives not only in its size and colors, but also in the depth of its habitat (70-80 m) in the southern Caribbean. The scientists gave it the name Coryphopterus curasub in recognition of the Curasub submersible that was used in their deep-reef exploration.

Marine biodiversity inhabiting shallow Caribbean coral reefs has been studied for more than 150 years, but much less is known about what lives at depths just below those accessible with conventional SCUBA gear.

Thanks to the availability of a privately owned, manned submersible on the island of Curacao, the Curasub, scientists are now able to intensively study depths to 300 m (1,000 ft).


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Genes May Influence How Well You Take Tests

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 1:00pm
Could it be that genetic differences can affect how well children perform in exams? Our research suggests that this may well be the case and that individual differences between children are, to a large extent, due to the inherited genetic differences between them that predisposes them to do well academically, whatever the subject.

We also found that there is shared genetic influence across a range of subjects, even after controlling the exam results for general intelligence.

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Fatherhood Makes Men Fat

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 12:30pm

All those leftover pizza crusts you snatch from your kids' plates add up. Men gain weight after they become fathers for the first time whether or not they live with their children, reports a large, new study that tracked the weight of more than 10,000 men from adolescence to young adulthood. 


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High Z: Metal Foams Shield X-rays, Gamma Rays And Neutron Radiation

Science2.0 - July 27, 2015 - 8:00am

Lightweight composite metal foams are effective at blocking X-rays, gamma rays and neutron radiation, and are capable of absorbing the energy of high impact collisions, and a new finding means the metal foams hold promise for use in nuclear safety, space exploration and medical technology applications.

Researchers conducted multiple tests to see how effective it was at blocking X-rays, gamma rays and neutron radiation. She then compared the material's performance to the performance of bulk materials that are currently used in shielding applications. The comparison was made using samples of the same "areal" density - meaning that each sample had the same weight, but varied in volume.


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Drugs In Wastewater Contaminate Drinking Water

Science2.0 - July 26, 2015 - 7:24pm

Both prescription and illegal drugs that are abused have been found in Canadian surface waters. New research shows that wastewater discharges flowing downstream have the potential to contaminate sources of drinking water with these drugs at relatively low concentrations.

The concentrations of cocaine, morphine, and oxycodone did not decline with distance downstream from the wastewater treatment plant discharge, and many of the drugs were not removed effectively by drinking water treatment plants.

The research is part of a special section on pharmaceuticals in the journal Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry.


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Health Care Providers A Major Contributor To Antibiotic Overuse

Science2.0 - July 26, 2015 - 2:30pm

10 percent of health care providers write an antibiotic prescription for nearly all (over 95 percent) of patients who walks in with a cold, bronchitis or other acute respiratory infection (ARI), according to a new study.

The figure is at one end of a spectrum showing the remarkable variation in how providers use antibiotics. At the low end, 10 percent of providers prescribe antibiotics during 40 percent or fewer patient visits.


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