Science2.0

Rolapitant Reduces Nausea, Vomiting From Chemotherapy In Phase III Trial

Science2.0 - September 27, 2014 - 2:39pm

Rolapitant reduces nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy, according to the results of a phase III trial presented for the first time today at the ESMO 2014 Congress in Madrid, Spain.


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Afatinib Improves Progression-Free Cancer Survival

Science2.0 - September 27, 2014 - 2:21pm

Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improved progression-free survival compared to methotrexate in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy, the results of a phase III trial presented at the ESMO 2014 Congress in Madrid show.

The Lux-Head&Neck 1 trial showed that patients who received treatment with 40 mg/day oral afatinib had a 20% reduction in risk of progression or death compared to patients who received methotrexate, with a median progression-free survival of 2.6 months. 


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Team Pressure, Different Rules, Mental Hell – Why The Ryder Cup Is Not Just Another Golf Major

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 11:01pm

Phil Mickelson tees off at Gleneagles. Credit: EPA

By Tony Westbury, Edinburgh Napier University

Medinah Country Club, Chicago, Ryder Cup 2012. There were six short feet between Martin Kaymer and the 18th hole. This was the moment. No other player, no spectator, none of the many millions watching on television would have dared breathe. The seconds stretched as the German composed himself for his final shot.

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Science 2.0: Codifying Collegiality And An Increase In Data-Sharing

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 8:30pm

The public is not aware of this, but academic science is more like a small business than being part of a vast university structure. An investigator is the business owner and the researchers are independent contractors, augmented by graduate students who go to the school.

In that sort of environment, where the life and death of the business is determined by beating other labs for a finite pool of money, while the government spends billions to try and increase the number of competitors who want to be in government-funded academia rather than the private sector, competitive instincts run high.

Sharing data either dilutes the strength of a research group or it allows a competitor to have a shortcut that another lab funded.  Lose-lose. 


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Pacific Ocean: Cold Cloud Tops In Tropical Storm Rachel

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 8:00pm

NASA's Aqua satellite captured strong thunderstorms with colder cloud tops that have grown within Tropical Storm Rachel in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Aqua passed over the large Tropical Storm Rachel on Sept. 25 at 4:41 p.m. EDT and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument, saw that the extent of colder cloud tops had increased, indicating thunderstorm heights were increasing and it was strengthening. The expansion of those stronger thunderstorms also suggests that the northeasterly wind shear may be relaxing a little. The strongest thunderstorms remain limited to the southwest of the low-level center, 


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How The Atmosphere Produces Its 'Detergent'

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 8:00pm

Earth's atmosphere is a complicated dance of molecules involving the output of plants, animals and human industry in sequences of chemical reactions.

Such processes help maintain the atmosphere's chemical balance; most topically during protest week in New York City, they break down pollutants emitted from the burning of fossil fuels.

Understanding exactly how these reactions proceed is critical for predicting how the atmosphere will respond to environmental changes, but some of the steps of this dance are so quick that all of the molecules involved haven't been measured in the wild.


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Periodontitis Is Sixth Most Prevalent Health Condition In The World

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 7:14pm

Periodontitis, gum infection that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone that supports teeth, is the sixth most prevalent condition in the world affecting 743 million people worldwide, according to research from 2010.

Between 1990 and 2010, the global age-standardized prevalence of severe periodontitis was static at 11.2%. The age-standardized incidence of severe periodontitis in 2010 was 701 cases per 100,000 person-years, a non-significant increase from the 1990 incidence of severe periodontitis.


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Fish Harvests: Natural Processes Cause Dramatic Drops In Populations - So Do Humans

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 6:43pm

Ryan Rykaczewski, an oceanographer and assistant professor at the University of South Carolina, is part of a team that are looking deep into the ocean's past, and they have shown that natural processes can cause dramatic year-to-year drops in fish populations and growth rates.

They also raise questions about whether human activities might be making those declines more frequent.


Upwelling means phytoplankton, the perfect 'sea food'



The focus of the research is the California current, which stretches from Washington state to the Baja peninsula and is one of a handful of coastal waters on Earth from which an inordinately large portion of the world's fish harvest originates.


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Ice Loss Due To Warming Is Even Changing Gravity

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 4:29pm
Ice ebbs and flows, that is no secret - but lost in claims that ice is as widespread as ever is the reality that it is now thinner, and the difference is so noticeable the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite can detect it.

The strength of gravity at Earth’s surface varies subtly from place to place owing to factors such as the planet’s rotation and the position of mountains and ocean trenches. Changes in the mass of large ice sheets can also cause small local variations in gravity.
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Cows Are Smarter Than Whole Foods Shoppers

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 3:38pm
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Drugs For Your Pets

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 3:30pm
By:  Karin Heineman, Inside Science

(Inside Science TV) – Dogs and cats can suffer from some of the same illnesses as humans such as allergies, cancer and even Alzheimer's disease. Currently pets are often given drugs designed for the human body that may not work the same way in the body of another species.

For example, dogs with allergies are often prescribed the popular allergy drug Allegra. But, the formula was not designed for use by a dog and may not work correctly.

Now, researchers at Kindred Biosciences in Burlingam, California are developing new drugs made just for pets.
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Genetic Engineering Helps Food Crops Tolerate Drought

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 2:40pm

Outside the developed world, global population continues to rise but all of the best agricultural locations are in use. If we want people to be self-sufficient (and we do) science is going to need to be able to help the developing world with innovative and sustainable solutions.

Modern agriculture has not reached any kind of limit, we can easily boost food production by as much as 70-100% in the next few decades. To grow in more difficult areas, and to be resistant to swings in weather, more drought-tolerant food crops are essential.  


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Indonesia Cassava Might Be Saved By Parasitic Wasp

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 12:30pm

Researchers in Indonesia are releasing the parasitic wasp Anagyrus lopezi in an attempt to save cassava crops from destructive mealybugs.

Credit:CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture .Rights information: http://bit.ly/otwhKG

By: Ker Than, Inside Science

(Inside Science) -- Scientists today released 2,000 South American parasitic wasps in Indonesia as part of a project aimed at thwarting an invasive insect pest that is devastating the country’s cassava food crop.

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Could There Really Be Such A Thing As Volcano Season?

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 12:01pm

Volcano season. Some think it's the time of the year. Credit: EPA

By Robin Wylie, University College London

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Government Says Economy Is Better, The Long-Term Unemployed Disagree

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 11:31am

The government says the unemployment level is back at 2009 levels - but they use a metric that no one outside government would consider valid, namely how many people collect unemployment checks.

After people have been unemployed past the expiration of the checks, the government claims they must be employed. In reality, many are not. The Great Recession limps along regardless of how the 1 % are doing in the stock market and what government public relations claims are.

In reality, 20 percent of workers laid off from a job during the last five years are still unemployed and looking for work, researchers from the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers have found.


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Small Is Ugly 2

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 9:16am

The very small is very weird; I explained that the last time in Small Is Ugly 1 already with help of the example of water being in the driest of places (Vastness and Fastness of the Small helps Evolution is of course somewhat related). And today, I still do not mean supposed "quantum weirdness", which is not about small stuff.

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For Obese People, Bariatric Surgery Is Not A Magic Wand To Curb Depression

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 2:00am

There's a common trope in Hollywood celebrities who gain weight and receive attention for it. They talk about how much healthier and better they feel about themselves at higher weight - and then they immediately lose weight and talk about how much healthier and better they feel about themselves.

Severely obese people who aren't famous also experience much better spirits once they shed weight through diet, lifestyle changes or medical intervention but Valentina Ivezaj and Carlos Grilo of the Yale University School of Medicine write in Obesity Surgery that it is not a psychological magic bullet.


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No Drugs Needed: Talk Therapy Best For Social Anxiety Disorder

Science2.0 - September 26, 2014 - 1:31am

Antidepressants are the most commonly used treatment for social anxiety disorder but we know they don't work for many people and their efficacy goes down over time.

New research finds they are not even needed in many instances. 

Social anxiety disorder is a condition characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations. It affects as many as 13 percent of the Western world. For most people, it is not severe, and they never receive treatment for the disorder but those who do get treatment are usually assigned medication.


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Healthy Food Might Be Bad For Patients – Here’s Why

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 9:30pm

Healthy food might be bad for patients. Food for thought. Photo by By Amanda Squire, Cardiff Metropolitan University

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Artificial Photosynthesis Could Turn CO2 Into Renewable Energy

Science2.0 - September 25, 2014 - 9:01pm

The appeal of artificial photosynthesis, in which the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is used to produce clean, green and sustainable fuels, is that we can turn an atmospheric byproduct into a renewable energy technology.

However, finding a catalyst for reducing carbon dioxide that is highly selective and efficient has proven to be a huge scientific challenge.

Peidong Yang, a chemist with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division, led a study in which bimetallic nanoparticles of gold and copper were used as the catalyst for the carbon dioxide reduction. The results experimentally revealed for the first time the critical influence of the electronic and geometric effects in the reduction reaction.


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