White fat and brown fat have been well documented regarding metabolism but new research has introduced data that may be important this winter and this new year: each type of fat may change into the other, depending on the temperature.
In particular, cold temperatures may encourage "unhealthy" white fat to change into "healthy" brown fat.
A new study finds that fructose is bad. Biologists who fed mice sugar in doses proportional to what many people eat found that the ratio of fructose and glucose in high-fructose corn syrup was more toxic than than random variations found in sucrose (table sugar). They conclude that the precisely-determined fructose reduced both the reproduction and lifespan of female rodents.
The ice on Greenland formed due to processes in the deep Earth interior of the Arctic, large-scale glaciations that began about 2.7 million years ago. Prior to that, the northern hemisphere was so warm it was mostly without out, and that period lasted for 500 million years. l
The big question geologically is why the glaciation of Greenland only developed so recently.
It's because of the interaction of three tectonic processes. Greenland literally had to be lifted up, so that the mountain peaks reached into sufficiently cold altitudes of the atmosphere. Greenland also needed to move sufficiently far northward, which led to reduced solar irradiation in winter. Then a shift of the Earth axis caused Greenland to move even further northward.
Cholera is characterized by acute watery diarrhea resulting in severe dehydration and occurs when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the small intestine.
How does it happen?
In 2002 on Christmas Eve, two-year-old Bryce Faber was diagnosed with neuroblastoma, a deadly. The toddler's treatment, in addition to surgery, included massive amounts of radiation followed by even more massive amounts of antibiotics, and it no doubt saved his life. But those mega-doses of antibiotics, while staving off infections in his immunosuppressed body, caused a permanent side effect: deafness.
"All I remember is coming out of treatment not being able to hear anything," said Bryce, now a healthy 14-year-old living in Arizona. "I asked my mom, 'Why have all the people stopped talking?'" He was 90 percent deaf.
"The loss has been devastating," said his father, Bart Faber. "But not as devastating as losing him would have been."
By Richard Gunderman, Indiana University-Purdue University-->
By Ethan Zuckerman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Apple’s product launches are covered with breathless enthusiasm usually reserved for royal weddings and vaccines for dread diseases.
The recent launch of the iPhone6 featured an exciting new technology - ApplePay - which, if widely adopted, will allow Apple’s discerning customers to make electronic payments from their phones in situations where they would have used credit cards or cash.
Researchers have solved a puzzle in traffic research, namely why so many people 'jerk' the wheel when they steer a car.
Groups like the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration set the gold standard worldwide for science - but they are still soundly criticized. Every time the EPA clears a pesticide it is blasted because the studies it mandates are "industry-funded", which is required by law. As are trials for drugs.
For many people, the disclaimers about side effects of drugs at the end of television drug commercials (along with the omnipresent 'see our ad in Golf magazine' small print) are somewhat laughable - like with Proposition 65 'cancer-causing chemicals' here in California, when everything is a problem, nothing is - but they have a serious societal impact when the FDA says it.
By Benjamin Burke, University of Hull
In the development of new drugs, taking something from nature and modifying it has been a successful tactic employed by medicinal chemists for years.
Now, with the help of nanotechnology, researchers are turning once-discarded drug candidates into usable drugs.
A new study shows that plasma waves buffeting the planet's radiation belts are responsible for scattering charged particles into the atmosphere, creating the most detailed analysis so far of the link between these waves and the fallout of electrons from the planet's radiation belts.
The belts are impacted by fluctuations in "space weather" caused by solar activity that can disrupt GPS satellites, communication systems, power grids and manned space exploration.
Acoustic levitation has been done in the past but it required a precise setup where the sound source and reflector were at fixed "resonant" distances. This made controlling the levitating objects difficult and isn't really proof-of-concept for anything practical.
Now a team of researchers have developed a new device that can levitate polystyrene particles by reflecting sound waves from a source above off a concave reflector below - with more control than any instrument created before. Changing the orientation of the reflector allows the hovering particle to be moved around.
Older men with locally advanced prostate cancer benefit by adding radiation treatment to hormone therapy versus hormone therapy alone, according to a new study which found that hormone therapy plus radiation reduced cancer deaths by nearly 50 percent in men aged 76 to 85 compared to men who only received hormone therapy.
Past studies have shown that 40 percent of men with aggressive prostate cancers are treated with hormone therapy alone, exposing a large gap in curative cancer care among "Baby Boomers" as they approach their their 70s.
Researchers have developed a detailed explanation of how white-nose syndrome is killing bats in parts of North America - the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans makes bats die by increasing the amount of energy they use during winter hibernation.
Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin created a model for how the disease progresses from initial infection to death in bats during hibernation. Since bats must carefully ration their energy supply during this time to survive without eating until spring, they tested the energy depletion hypothesis by measuring the amounts of energy used by infected and healthy bats hibernating under similar conditions.
Exercise has been found to people with Parkinson's disease improve their balance, ability to move around and quality of life - the only thing it cannot do is reduce their risk of falling, according to a new study in the journal Neurology. However, when started early, the threshold risk for falling remained lower.
In the study, 231 people with Parkinson's disease either received their usual care or took part in an exercise program of 40-60 minutes of balance and leg strengthening exercises three times a week for six months. The exercise program was prescribed and monitored by a physical therapist with participants performing most of the exercise at home, so it was minimal supervision. On average, 13 percent of the exercise sessions were with a physical therapist.
Elderly patients admitted to intensive care units are about 35 percent more likely to die within five years of leaving the hospital if they develop an infection during their stay.
The upside to this finding is that preventing two of the most common health care-associated infections - bloodstream infections caused by central lines and pneumonia caused by ventilators - can increase the odds that these patients survive and reduce the cost of their care by more than $150,000, according to a study in American Journal of Infection Control.