Science2.0

What Californians Of 2015 Share With 1991 Religious Fundamentalists

Science2.0 - February 11, 2015 - 2:30pm
In this century, vaccine denial is primarily located in progressive hotbeds of states like California, rooted in distrust of science. It's an embarrassment for Democrats, who pride themselves on being more scientific than Republicans, to see that right-wing states like Mississippi and Alabama have negligible exemption rates while supposedly more educated places like California, Washington and Oregon lead the charge in bringing back dangerous infectious diseases. -->

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A New Approach For Bowel Cancer

Science2.0 - February 11, 2015 - 2:00pm
Colorectal carcinoma, colon cancer, is the third most common cancer in the United States. 

So-called microsatellite stable colorectal cancer with mutations in the BRAF gene represents a particularly aggressive form. The BRAF gene produces the enzyme B-Raf, which plays a critical role in controlling cell division.
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In Gas Turbines, Some Cracks Are A Good Thing

Science2.0 - February 11, 2015 - 2:00pm
Gas turbines are used for the production of electricity and in aircraft engines and they are sprayed with a surface coating to increase their lifespan.

The coating consists of two layers, one of metal to protect against oxidation and corrosion, and one ceramic to give thermal insulation. The structure of the coating varies greatly, consisting of pores and cracks of different sizes. It is these cracks and pores that largely determine the efficiency of the thermal insulation and the length of the coating's life-span. 
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Ignore Phony Controversies, Failure In Real Science Is Good

Science2.0 - February 11, 2015 - 1:30pm

The BICEP2 telescope at twilight at the South Pole. The supporting data for the inflation of the universe have also gone off into the sunset. Steffen Richter/ Harvard University , CC BY-NC-SA

By Chad Orzel, Associate Professor of Physics at Union College.

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Acoustic Power: The Surprising Efficiency Improvements In The Violin Over Time

Science2.0 - February 11, 2015 - 3:12am
Some of the most prized violins in the world were crafted in the Italian workshops of Amati, Stradivari, and Guarneri in the 17th and 18th centuries. They produced increasingly powerful instruments in the renaissance and baroque musical eras.

This Cremonese period is now considered the golden age of violin-making.
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Would You Like Listeria With That Capicola?

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 11:22pm
Standard cleaning procedures in retail delis may not eradicate Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, which can cause a potentially fatal disease in people with vulnerable immune systems. 

In a recent study, 6.8 percent of samples taken in 15 delis before daily operation had begun tested positive for L. monocytogenes. In a second sampling phase, 9.5 percent of samples taken in 30 delis during operation over six months tested positive for the bacteria. In 12 delis, the same subtypes of the bacteria cropped up in several of the monthly samplings, which could mean that L. monocytogenes can persist in growth niches over time. 
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Extra Genes Make Bacteria Lethal

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 11:10pm
We have beneficial bacteria because of symbiosis: the success of the host determines the survival and spread of the microbe. But if bacteria grow too much they may become deadly. In a new study, a research team from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia found that a single genomic change can turn beneficial bacteria into pathogenic bacteria, by boosting bacterial density inside the host.

Ewa Chrostek and Luis Teixeira studied the symbiosis between a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the bacterium Wolbachia to answer how benign bacteria become pathogenic. Wolbachia is present in most insect species and protects some of them against viruses, including the dengue fever virus.
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Stay Or Stray? Finger Length May Tell If You Are Promiscuous Or Faithful

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 7:41pm
If you are not inclined to be faithful and your partner is not buying into your claim of sex addiction, psychologists may have a better alternative: genetics.

They made their determination by analyzing individual attitudes relating to non-committed sex and the length of the ring finger compared to the index finger. The questions were for 575 North American and British people about non-committed sex. The psychologists then measured photocopies of the right hands of 1,314 British people.
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The Copper Heart Of Volcanoes

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 7:11pm
The link between volcanism and the formation of copper ore could lead to discovery of new copper deposits.

Copper has been in use for 6,000 years and it shows no signs of slowing down. The average home has about a hundred pounds of it and we are going to have more people and homes, not fewer. Volcanoes may be the answer.
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How To Teach Intelligence

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 7:00pm
Is it possible to teach intelligence? If so, debates about success being related to economic redistribution go out the window and all kids can can be taught the problem-solving skills that have been the metric for 'intelligence' over the last century.

The basis of general problem solving is the ability to use strategies acquired in one area to understand a wide range of other tasks. It's more than facts, though unfortunately facts are what international standardized tests - the kinds American kids are the middle of the pack in - focus us. American kids are instead taught how to think and that is the better way to go, because facts are now widely available thanks to technology. It is not longer a mark of intelligence to be able to recite things from memory.
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Making Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 6:53pm
A nonflammable electrolyte may bring us safer lithium-ion batteries. 

“With current lithium batteries safety is engineered through the battery management system,” says Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researcher Nitash Balsara, co-founder of Blue Current, a startup company to further develop their invention. “Although they are generally considered safe, you still have an electrolyte in the battery that is flammable, and every so often something might go wrong. We want to take that anxiety out of the battery.”
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Calories Consumed Versus Calories Burned - The Only Real Weight Loss Plan

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 5:30pm
Olivier Le Moal

By Hazhir Rahmandad, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Flu On A CPU

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 5:24pm

By combining experimental data from X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, cryoelectron microscopy and lipidomics (the study of cellular lipid networks), researchers at the University of Oxford have built a complete model of the outer envelope of an influenza A virion for the first time. The approach, known as a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, has allowed them to generate trajectories at different temperatures and lipid compositions - revealing various characteristics about the membrane components that may help scientists better understand how the virus survives in the wild or find new ways to combat it.


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Youth Hockey Brain Imaging Study Suggests Early Marker For Concussion Damage

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 5:23pm

James Hudziak, M.D., a pediatric neuropsychiatrist and director of the Vermont Center for Children, Youth and Families at the University of Vermont (UVM) College of Medicine, and UVM colleagues Matthew Albaugh, Ph.D., Catherine Orr, Ph.D., and Richard Watts, Ph.D., have published a study in the February issue of The Journal of Pediatrics that shows a relationship between concussions sustained by young ice hockey players and subtle changes in the cortex, the outer layer of the brain that controls higher-level reasoning and behavior.


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Sending Two-Year-Olds To School Is Unnatural

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 5:19pm

Government elites want parents to rush to turn their progeny into units of human capital as quickly as possible. It risks 'damaged goods'. Shutterstock

By Pam Jarvis, Leeds Trinity University

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E-cigarette Vapors And Flavorings Trigger Lung Cell Stress

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 4:51pm

Do electronic cigarettes help people quit smoking? As the debate continues on that point, a new University of Rochester study suggests that e-cigarettes are likely a toxic replacement for tobacco products.

Emissions from e-cigarette aerosols and flavorings damage lung cells by creating harmful free radicals and inflammation in lung tissue, according to the UR study published in the journal PLOS ONE. Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., professor of Environmental Medicine at the UR School of Medicine and Dentistry, led the research, which adds to a growing body of scientific data that points to dangers of e-cigarettes and vaping.


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Shamsheer: Indian Sword Is A Masterpiece Of Bladesmithing

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 4:36pm
Indian swords don't get a lot of cultural respect compared to the works of Spain or Japan but a new study used two different approaches to analyze a shamsheer, a 75-centimeter-long sword from the Wallace Collection in London, and found that it was master craftsmanship 

The study, led by Eliza Barzagli of the Institute for Complex Systems and the University of Florence in Italy, used metallography and neutron diffraction to test the differences and complementarities of the two techniques. The shamsheer was made in India in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century and is of Persian origin. The base design spread across Asia and eventually gave rise to the family of similar weapons called scimitars that were forged in various Southeast Asian countries. -->

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Creatine Doesn't Slow Parkinson's Disease

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 4:00pm
Treatment with creatine monohydrate for at least 5 years for patients with early and treated Parkinson disease failed to slow clinical progression of the disease, compared with placebo, according to a study in the February 10 issue of JAMA.
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Gene Confirms Existence Of Psoriatic Arthritis

Science2.0 - February 10, 2015 - 3:57pm

Psoriatic arthritis is a common form of inflammatory form of arthritis causing pain and stiffness in joints and tendons that can lead to joint damage. Nearly all patients with psoriatic arthritis also have skin psoriasis and, in many cases, the skin disease is present before the arthritis develops. However, only one third of patients with psoriasis will go on to develop psoriatic arthritis.


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