Earth

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have honed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

Scientists have confirmed that the 3.4 billion year old Strelley Pool microfossils had chemical characteristics similar to modern bacteria. This all but confirms their biological origin and ranks them amongst the world's oldest microfossils. The work is presented at the Goldschmidt geochemistry conference in Boston, with simultaneous publication in the peer-reviewed journal Geochemical Perspectives Letters (see below for reference).

Socio-economic position determines the environmental hazards--such as air pollution and noise--that pregnant women are exposed to in urban areas, although the nature of the association varies from city to city. This was the main conclusion of a new study conducted with the participation of the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a centre supported by the "la Caixa" Banking Foundation.

Mathematics can help public health workers better understand and influence human behaviours that lead to the spread of infectious disease, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

Current models used to predict the emergence and evolution of pathogens within host populations do not include social behaviour.

As sea levels rise due to climate change, so do the global hazards and potential devastating damages from tsunamis, according to a new study by a partnership that included Virginia Tech.

Even minor sea-level rise, by as much as a foot, poses greater risks of tsunamis for coastal communities worldwide.

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Timber harvested illegally under fraudulent permits is undercutting conservation efforts in the Brazilian Amazon, new research by an international collaboration shows.

The findings represent a troublesome counterpunch to an overall decline in deforestation rates in the region and indicate high-value timber species such as ipe? may be at risk of overexploitation.

The study appeared today in Science Advances.

At 2.1 million square miles, the Amazon Rainforest is the world's largest intact forest, with the majority of it in Brazil.

A car accident leaves an aging patient with severe muscle injuries that won't heal. Treatment with muscle stem cells from a donor might restore damaged tissue, but doctors are unable to deliver them effectively. A new method may help change this.

The open water nearest the sea ice surrounding Antarctica releases significantly more carbon dioxide in winter than previously believed, a new study has found. Researchers conducting the study used data gathered over several winters by an array of robotic floats diving and drifting in the Southern Ocean around the southernmost continent.

Scientists in Norfolk, VA (USA) have developed a new method of making collagen microfibres, which could have applications in research, medical devices and clinical treatments ranging from ligament damage to skin burns.

While collagen fibre manufacturing methods such as electrospinning and extrusion exist for biomedical applications, they have seen limited clinical success. This is partially due to challenges of scalability, cost, and complexity.

New research published in The Journal of Physiology highlights how exercise could help people exposed to extreme temperatures protect themselves from the cold. This could be useful for people who live and work in very cold conditions.