Brain

CHICAGO --- Quitting smoking can significantly improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment, according to the U.S. Surgeon General, yet almost half of cancer patients continue to smoke after they've been diagnosed.

A new study from Northwestern Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania found cancer patients have better success quitting and are not as prone to relapsing one year later if they undergo counseling sessions for 24 weeks and take the smoking cessation medication varenicline (e.g. Chantix) for 24 weeks, compared to the routine 12 weeks.

SAN ANTONIO -- Jan. 23, 2019 -- A new Southwest Research Institute study tackles one of the greatest mysteries about Titan, one of Saturn's moons: the origin of its thick, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The study posits that one key to Titan's mysterious atmosphere is the "cooking" of organic material in the moon's interior.

Boston, MA -- Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the U.S., and African Americans are disproportionately affected. Prior studies have investigated how limited access to material resources due to financial hardship may influence health, but the association between that stress caused by financial hardship and coronary heart disease in African Americans has not previously been examined.

In a four-year study, a group of science faculty finds that student buy-in to a new curriculum, and therefore satisfaction, increases with each successive undergraduate cohort -- and learning gains did not suffer. The researchers say the results of their longitudinal study should help encourage college faculty and administration to create, adapt, and support innovative courses for their students.

Scientists increasingly believe that one of the driving forces in chronic pain—the number one health problem in both prevalence and burden—appears to be the memory of earlier pain. New research suggests that there may be variations, based on sex, in the way that pain is remembered in both mice and humans.

City lifestyle has been criticised for being an important reason for children being disconnected from nature. This has led to an unhealthy lifestyle in regards to active play and eating habits. Even worse, many young children do not feel well psychologically - they are often stressed and depressed. 16 per cent of pre-schoolers in Hong Kong and up to 22% in China show signs of mental health problems (Kwok SY, Gu M, Cheung AP, 2017; Zhu J, et al. 2017).

Missing GP appointments is associated with early death, and those with long-term mental health conditions are at particular risk.

Dr Ross McQueenie led the study from the University of Glasgow along with colleagues from Lancaster University and the University of Aberdeen.

In the largest study of its kind, the team examined over 500,000 patients' appointment histories in Scotland, tracked for 3 years between 2013 and 2016.

Initial results have raised hopes of a method that can alleviate the symptom of flashbacks without therapists – because there are far too few therapists.

OTTAWA, January 10, 2019 - A study published today in the journal Gut shows that women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at greater risk of developing a mental illness after giving birth compared to the overall population. Study authors found that more than one-fifth of pregnant women with IBD had a new-onset mental health diagnosis. For every 43 pregnancies, there is one extra case of mental illness in a woman with IBD, compared to other women.

A budding relationship or just a one-night stand? The difference may not be immediately obvious, least of all to those directly involved. However, sex helps initiate romantic relationships between potential partners, a new study finds.

There are more than 3,900 confirmed planets beyond our solar system. Most of them have been detected because of their "transits" -- instances when a planet crosses its star, momentarily blocking its light. These dips in starlight can tell astronomers a bit about a planet's size and its distance from its star.

Bottom Line: While cerebral palsy is considered a pediatric condition because it develops and is diagnosed in early childhood, it is a lifelong condition with the majority of children living into adulthood. Little research exists on the mental health of adults with cerebral palsy. This study included 1,700 adults 18 years or older with cerebral palsy and 5,100 adults without cerebral palsy. Those adults with cerebral palsy without an intellectual disability had a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety. The study relied on diagnostic codes for outcomes.

WiKim (World Institute of Kimchi, General Director, Dr. Jaeho Ha) reported that the white colonies on the surface of kimchi is not formed by molds but by "yeasts" and that genomic data was acquired regarding the hygienic safety of the yeast strains.

As a non-noble metal, copper oxidizes more easily to positive valence (Cu+ or Cu2+) than same-family elements Au or Ag. In general, this chemical property is mainly determined by electron structure. Can we change the chemical properties of an element by regulating its electron structure? Can Cu act as a noble metal in catalytic reactions?

PISCATAWAY, NJ - College students who binge drink are frequently posting on social media while intoxicated and show signs of social media "addiction," according to a new study.

Students later may regret their drinking-related posts and experience other negative consequences from combining social media and alcohol use. The research appears in the latest edition of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.