Brain

The universe mainly consists of a novel substance and an energy form that are not yet understood. This 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' are not directly visible to the naked eye or through telescopes. Astronomers can only provide proof of their existence indirectly, based on the shape of galaxies and the dynamics of the universe. Dark matter interacts with normal matter via the gravitational force, which also determines the cosmic structures of normal, visible matter.

COLUMBUS, Ohio - New research suggests mindfulness training may help multiple sclerosis patients in two very different ways: regulating negative emotions and improving processing speed.

People with MS who underwent the four-week mindfulness training not only improved more compared to those who did nothing - they also improved compared to those who tried another treatment, called adaptive cognitive training.

TODAY'S young people can be dubbed the "Coronavirus Generation" and the pandemic will have a long-lasting effect on their lives, according to a University of Huddersfield lecturer who has helped analyse the data from a research project that aimed to appraise the impact of the virus on UK youth.

Findings include statistics which show that more than 90 per cent of young people were stringently observing the lockdown and that 80 per cent of them are seeking news not from social media but from traditional outlets, including ministerial briefings.

In the latest CUNY SPH COVID-19 tracking survey, New Yorkers gave convincing evidence that the city is not yet testing enough people and set high expectations for the safety measures they feel are necessary for them to return to work outside their homes. They are also uncertain about reopening public schools, colleges or universities in the fall. These are the major findings of the ninth city and statewide tracking survey from the CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy (CUNY SPH), conducted May 15-17.

New data suggests that asthma is associated with longer time on ventilators for hospitalized younger patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 between the ages of 20 and 59 years old who also had asthma needed a ventilator to assist with breathing for five days more on average than non-asthmatic patients with COVID-19, according to researchers at Rush University Medical Center, who published their findings today in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice.

Personal accounts of childhood maltreatment show a stronger association with psychiatric problems compared to legal proof that maltreatment occurred, according to a new study co-written by a King's College London researcher.

The findings indicate that clinical work that focusses on an individual's memories and thinking patterns around abuse and neglect could be more influential on mental health than previously thought.

KAIST physicists described a route to design the energy-efficient generation, manipulation and detection of spin currents using nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials. The research team, led by Professor Sungjae Cho, observed highly efficient charge-to-spin interconversion via the gate-tunable Rashba-Edelstien effect (REE) in graphene heterostructures.

This research paves the way for the application of graphene as an active spintronic component for generating, controlling, and detecting spin current without ferromagnetic electrodes or magnetic fields.

Co-authors Daria Hanolainen and Elena Semenova created and tested an experimental method of graphical vignettes - a set of incomplete comic strips which kids are asked to complete using their own creative vision. The paper discusses possible applications for the method.

To assess potential bullying episodes, the researchers tried to represent the most widespread types of bullying in graphical form.

13 girls and 6 boys aged 15 - 16 were asked to pass the comic strip test; thus, bullying could be studied as a group phenomenon.

Even though it's been over a decade, the 2008 recession and its effects still loom over the chemistry enterprise. And now with the COVID-19 pandemic shutting down labs and universities across the world, chemistry students and professionals are again facing hiring freezes, reduced pay and other career obstacles. Chemical & Engineering News, the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, spoke with chemists about how they're navigating the current economic downturn.

Washington, DC - The average cost of childbirth varies widely from state to state, according to new national analysis from the Health Care Cost Institute, which also found that spending on postpartum care extended across the full year after delivery. The research drew on HCCI's database of medical claims from approximately 40 million U.S. individuals with employer-sponsored insurance.

What The Study Did: Claims data for nearly 200,000 Medicare patients were used to examine the association between starting pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days of being hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and survival after one year. Pulmonary rehabilitation involves exercise training and self-management education.

Authors: Peter K. Lindenauer, M.D., M.Sc., of the University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts, is the corresponding author.

A study led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) researchers has revealed how the physical presence of spouses who are co-parenting can alter each other's brain activity.

The researchers analysed how the brain activity of 24 pairs of husband and wife from Singapore changed in response to recordings of infant stimuli such as crying, when they were physically together and when they were separated.

WOODS HOLE, Mass. -- Nearly a quarter of Americans suffer from arthritis, most commonly due to the wear and tear of the cartilage that protects the joints. As we age, or get injured, we have no way to grow new cartilage. Unlike humans and other mammals, the skeletons of sharks, skates, and rays are made entirely of cartilage and they continue to grow that cartilage throughout adulthood.

The COVID-19 pandemic dominates views of government, politics and virtually all aspects of daily life, according to a new poll of Massachusetts voters.

Tsukuba, Japan - Allergies can significantly affect health and quality of life. While allergen immunotherapy provides long-lasting therapeutic relief to people suffering from environmental allergies, the therapy can last several years and requires large amounts of allergen. Now, researchers from the University of Tsukuba developed a novel system that enables the mass production of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in plant leaves in just a matter of days.