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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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Simulations enable 'choose-your-own-adventure' stereochemistry

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
"We used our data-driven tools to derive significant insight into how the process works that allows us to design the correct additives to get the desired outcomes," Sigman said. The results allow chemists to control which stereochemical product comes out of the reaction, simply by selecting the right ligand. It's more than just a laboratory convenience, though. The study also reveals much more about how this important chemical process works.
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Drug overdose epidemic has been growing exponentially for decades

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Death rates from drug overdoses in the US have been on an exponential growth curve that began at least 15 years before the mid-1990s surge in opioid prescribing, suggesting that overdose death rates may continue along this same historical growth trajectory for years to come. These findings suggest that, to be successful, prevention efforts must extend beyond control of specific drugs to address deeper factors driving the epidemic.
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Gut fungus exacerbates asthma in antibiotic-treated mice

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A non-pathogenic fungus can expand in the intestines of antibiotic-treated mice and enhance the severity of allergic airways disease, according to a study published Sept. 20 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by David Underhill of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and colleagues. The findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota induced by intestinal fungi might be a previously unrecognized but potentially important risk of antibiotic therapy in patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases.
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Preventing a dengue outbreak at the 2020 Summer Olympics

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
In 2014, a dengue outbreak unexpectedly occurred in Tokyo. What does that mean for the 2020 summer Olympics and Paralympics being held in the city? Researchers report this week in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that new controls and frameworks are recommended to detect dengue and other infectious diseases and help prevent their spread during the summer games.
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Graphene bilayer provides efficient transport and control of spins

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
University of Groningen physicists in collaboration with a theoretical physics group from Universität Regensburg have built an optimized bilayer graphene device which displays both long spin lifetimes and electrically controllable spin-lifetime anisotropy. It has the potential for practical applications such as spin-based logic devices. The results were published in Physical Review Letters on 20 September.
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Affordable Care Act: Study finds surprising gaps in HIV care providers' knowledge

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
More than a quarter of providers were unable to say whether their state had expanded Medicaid, the national survey found. The survey also sought to assess the healthcare providers' views on the effects of the ACA.
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Opioid controlled substance agreements safely reduce health care visits, Mayo study finds

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
The medical community has long known that patients on long-term opioid therapy often have significantly more health care visits. But adhering to a standardized care process model for opioid prescriptions appears to reduce the overall number of health care visits for these patients while maintaining safety, shows new research published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
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In cardiac injury, the NSAID carprofen causes dysfunction of the immune system

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Attention has focused on how NSAIDs may cause dysfunction of the immune system. Researchers now have found that sub-acute pretreatment with the NSAID carprofen before experimental heart attack in mice impaired resolution of acute inflammation following cardiac injury. They focused on three aspects of the inflammation resolution axis -- cardiac function, leukocyte profiling and inflammation-resolution markers.
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Reducing false positives in credit card fraud detection

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Consumers' credit cards are declined surprisingly often in legitimate transactions. One cause is that fraud-detecting technologies used by a consumer's bank have incorrectly flagged the sale as suspicious. Now MIT researchers have employed a new machine-learning technique to drastically reduce these false positives, saving banks money and easing customer frustration.
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Decoding the structure of an RNA-based CRISPR system

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Scientists from the Salk Institute are reporting for the first time the detailed molecular structure of CRISPR-Cas13d, a promising enzyme for emerging RNA-editing technology. They were able to visualize the enzyme thanks to cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a cutting-edge technology that enables researchers to capture the structure of complex molecules in unprecedented detail.
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Study finds a conserved role for serotonin in regulating behavior in octopus, humans

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
The mood-altering drug MDMA -- which promotes positive, friendly social interactions in humans by inhibiting serotonin uptake in nerve cells -- has a similar behavioral effect in an octopus species, scientists reported today. This indicates that serotonin has been functioning as a regulator of social behavior for at least 500 million years, when the human and octopus lineages evolutionarily diverged.
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Matter falling into a black hole at 30 percent of the speed of light

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A UK team of astronomers report the first detection of matter falling into a black hole at 30% of the speed of light, located in the centre of the billion-light year distant galaxy PG211+143. The team, led by Professor Ken Pounds of the University of Leicester, used data from the European Space Agency's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton to observe the black hole. Their results appear in a new paper in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
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Hookworms employ live fast/die young strategy in fur seal pup hosts

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Hookworms exploit a live fast/die young strategy in their South American fur seal pup hosts, report Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at the University of Georgia. As a result, they often kill their host, rather than finding a happy equilibrium. Scientists are concerned that this type of hookworm infection could eventually pose a risk to critically endangered populations of fur seals.
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Even the best healthcare facilities can do more to prevent infections

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Healthcare-associated infections can be reduced by up to 55 percent by systematically implementing evidence-based infection prevention and control strategies, according to a review of 144 studies published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). The study suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in infection prevention and control practices, regardless of the economic status of the country.
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Researchers identify a new cause of childhood mitochondrial disease

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A rapid genetic test developed by Newcastle researchers has identified the first four patients with inherited mutations in a new disease gene, a building block of complex I called NDUFA6.
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Coastal wetlands will survive rising seas, but only if we let them

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A global study addresses a major uncertainty in how saltmarshes and mangroves will respond to sea-level rise; stresses importance of preserving 'accommodation space' for landward migration.
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Gut branches of vagus nerve essential components of brain's reward and motivation system

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A novel gut-to-brain neural circuit establishes the vagus nerve as an essential component of the brain system that regulates reward and motivation, according to research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published Sept. 20 in the journal Cell.
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Sample size matters in multisensory integration studies

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
Sample size (the number of individuals examined for a study) is the most important factor determining the accuracy of the study results.
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Mathematics meets biology to uncover unexpected biorhythms

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
A novel mathematical approach has uncovered that some animal cells have robust 12-hour cycles of genetic activity, in addition to circadian or 24-hour cycles.
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Study reveals a promising alternative to corticosteroids in acute renal failure treatment

Sep 20 2018 - 00:09
In search of an option for the drug known for causing several side effects, scientists describe the anti-inflammatory properties of protein galectin-1 in tests with rats involving ischemia-reperfusion scenarios.
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