Pyruvate kinase (PK), an omnipresent and functionally important enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ATP and pyruvate. The reaction, physiologically irreversible, is a key step in glycolysis, responsible for the final substrate level phosphorylation step. Pyruvate and PEP are also key metabolites that act as precursors for various biosynthesis pathways.

An unexpected phenomenon known as zero field switching (ZFS) could lead to smaller, lower-power memory and computing devices than presently possible. The image shows a layering of platinum (Pt), tungsten (W), and a cobalt-iron-boron magnet (CoFeB) sandwiched at the ends by gold (Au) electrodes on a silicon (Si) surface. The gray arrows depict the overall direction of electric current injected into the structure at the back of the gold (Au) contact and coming out the front gold contact pad.

Metastasis is the process whereby a tumour that grows in one organ breaks away from it and travels to another organ and colonises it. In the colonisation process it needs to create new blood vessels through which the cancer cells obtain the nutrients and oxygen they need to grow. This blood vessel formation process is called angiogenesis and is carried out by the endothelial cells.

Researchers investigated the diet of people buried in the Ii Hamina cemetery from the 15th to the 17th centuries by analysing isotopes in the bones of the deceased. Isotopes preserve information on the various nutrient sources used by humans during their lifetime. A study published in the Environmental Archaeology journal reveals that the dominant protein source was small fish, such as roach or Baltic herring.

A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of unique lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University.

The Rice-Tokyo team reported an advance in the ability to manipulate light at the quantum scale by using single-walled carbon nanotubes as plasmonic quantum confinement fields.

A research team from Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Waseda University have successfully produced high-quality thin film monocrystalline silicon with a reduced crystal defect density down to the silicon wafer level at a growth rate that is more than 10 times higher than before. In principle, this method can improve the raw material yield to nearly 100%.

In a study that has implications for humans with inflammatory diseases, researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and colleagues have found that, given over a six-week period, the artificial sweetener sucralose, known by the brand name Splenda, worsens gut inflammation in mice with Crohn's-like disease, but had no substantive effect on those without the condition. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of the digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, bloody stools, weight loss, and fatigue.

Lithium-metal batteries -- which can hold up to 10 times more charge than the lithium-ion batteries that currently power our phones, laptops and cars -- haven't been commercialized because of a fatal flaw: as these batteries charge and discharge, lithium is deposited unevenly on the electrodes. This buildup cuts the lives of these batteries too short to make them viable, and more importantly, can cause the batteries to short-circuit and catch fire.

If you think of the human body, microvascular networks comprised of the smallest blood vessels are a central part of the body's function. They facilitate the exchange of essential nutrients and gasses between the blood stream and surrounding tissues, as well as regulate blood flow in individual organs.

WASHINGTON, D.C., March 15, 2018 -- In a jet engine, the flow of air is slowed down to increase the temperature and pressure for combustion -- burning fuel with the right ratio of fuel and air to conquer drag allows for acceleration.

But in supersonic engines achieving the right flow speed, producing the right ratio of evaporated fuel and causing ignition at the right time is more complex. With evaporating liquid in a combustion chamber, there is more at play than just gravity and drag, especially with supersonic shock waves in the equation.