CORVALLIS, Ore. - The bacterial communities that live inside everyone are quite similar and stable when times are good, but when stress enters the equation, those communities can react very differently from person to person.

A microbiological version of the "Anna Karenina principle," it's a new paradigm suggested by scientists at Oregon State University -- one that has key implications for a more personalized approach to antibiotic therapy, management of chronic diseases and other aspects of medical care.

Lawrence Livermore scientists, in collaboration with researchers at Northeastern University, have developed carbon nanotube pores that can exclude salt from seawater. The team also found that water permeability in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with diameters smaller than a nanometer (0.8 nm) exceeds that of wider carbon nanotubes by an order of magnitude.

San Antonio -- Aug. 24, 2017 -- Two NASA WB-57F research aircraft successfully tracked the August 21 solar eclipse as part of a NASA project led by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to study the solar corona and Mercury's surface.

"The visible and infrared data look spectacular," said SwRI senior research scientist Dr. Amir Caspi, principal investigator of the project. "We're already seeing some surprising features, and we are very excited to learn what the detailed analysis will reveal."

(Osaka, Japan) Brain functions are maintained by the neural network. Neural network is formed by the connection between the neurite, and this connection is supported by the wrapping of myelin. Demyelination is detected in the patients of several diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, and is associated with neurological dysfunctions. A new study in The Journal of Clinical Investigation by scientists at Osaka University shows that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 promotes remyelination in mice and may be a promising key molecule for treating demyelinating diseases.

Similar to our aging society, dogs live longer than before and an increasing number of them die from cancer nowadays. As seen in humans, dogs have malignant cancers that cannot be treated by existing therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Oral malignant melanoma (OMM), a highly invasive cancer in dogs, is one such example.

While lithium-ion batteries, widely used in mobile devices from cell phones to laptops, have one of the longest lifespans of commercial batteries today, they also have been behind a number of recent meltdowns and fires due to short-circuiting in mobile devices. In hopes of preventing more of these hazardous malfunctions researchers at Drexel University have developed a recipe that can turn electrolyte solution -- a key component of most batteries -- into a safeguard against the chemical process that leads to battery-related disasters.

Researchers at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) in Japan have designed a small 'body-on-a-chip' device that can test the side effects of drugs s on human cells. The device solves some issues with current, similar microfluidic devices and offers promise for the next generation of pre-clinical drug tests.

Hokkaido University scientists have developed a new mathematical model which accurately forecasted that a devastating cholera epidemic in Yemen would peak by early July, the 26th week of 2017 and the cumulative incidence would be the order of 700-800 thousand cases.

A voltage difference is created across a junction of two wires held at different temperatures. This phenomenon, called thermoelectric effect, has been widely studied and used in various applications such as thermoelectric power generators, thermoelectric refrigerators, and temperature measurement. When the cross section of the junction contact is reduced to a few atoms, quantum-mechanical effects or, specifically, quantum interferences among electrons affect the transport of electrons across the junction.

A nanosheet made of organic polymers has been developed to prevent the drying and deforming of biological samples, thus enabling high-quality imaging under microscopes.