Earth

Quantum mechanics, as a pillar of modern civilization, has benefited human society for a century, in which wavefunctions played a crucial role. In the past 100 years, what most people did was 'Shut up and calculate', and wavefunctions always gave us a correct probability list of measurement outcomes. However, the debate on the following deeper philosophical issue behind it still persists: whether wavefunctions describe the reality of quantum entities' existence and dynamic trajectory.

West Coast rockfish species in deep collapse only 20 years ago have multiplied rapidly in large marine protected areas off Southern California, likely seeding surrounding waters with enough offspring to offer promise of renewed fishing, a new study has found.

A new study published in the Annals of Neurology found a link between head trauma in adolescence, particularly if repeated, with a raised risk of later developing multiple sclerosis. The link may be due to the initiation of an autoimmune process in the central nervous system.

ITHACA, N.Y. - In an effort to settle the debate about the origin of dog domestication, a technique that uses 3-D scans of fossils is helping researchers determine the difference between dogs and wolves.

In the ongoing debate, one camp believes dogs were domesticated in the Paleolithic age (more than 17,000 years ago), when humans were hunter-gatherers. The other camp believes domestication occurred in the Neolithic age (17,000 to 7,000 years ago), when humans first established agriculture and civilizations.

David Lohman, associate professor of biology at The City College of New York's Division of Science, is co-author of a landmark paper on butterflies "An illustrated checklist of the genus Elymnias Hübner, 1818 (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)." Lohman and his colleagues from Taiwan and Indonesia revise the taxonomy of Asian palmflies in the genus Elymnias in light of a forthcoming study on the butterflies' evolutionary history.

ITHACA, N.Y. - Who knew that it's possible to predict the fragrance of a flower by looking at its color?

This is true for many of the 41 insect-pollinated plant species growing in a Phrygana scrubland habitat on the Greek island of Lesbos. An international research team published their findings Sept. 4 in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

The Southern Ocean is key to Earth's climate, but the same gusting winds, big waves and strong currents that are important to ocean physics make it perilous for oceanographers.

>UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- Some great ideas are born out of years of painstaking research. Others are gleaned from the plotline of the movie "Twister."
The latter is how Paul Markowski, professor of meteorology, and Yvette Richardson, professor of meteorology and associate dean for undergraduate education, Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, set a course to create and launch probes into storms to, as they put it, "revolutionize our understanding of how tornadoes form."

The onset of the last ice age may have forced some bird species to abandon their northerly migrations for thousands of years, says new research led by a University of Nebraska-Lincoln ornithologist.

Published Sept. 20 in the journal Science Advances, the study challenges a long-held presumption that birds merely shortened their migratory flights when glaciers advanced south to cover much of North America and northern Europe about 21,000 years ago.

Under the global warming, East China is witnessing more heat waves with increasing intensity, for instance, the strongest heat wave over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) in 2013 since 1951 which severely harmed the economy and the health of the population. Therefore, clarifying the main factors responsible for the heat wave variability and their relative contribution is important to improving seasonal-to-annual prediction.