Earth

Exceptionally preserved trilobite fossils from China, dating back to more than 500 million years ago, have revealed new insights into the extinct marine animal's digestive system. Published today in the journal PLOS ONE, the new study shows that at least two trilobite species evolved a stomach structure 20 million years earlier than previously thought.

Woody vegetation, such as trees and shrubs, has increased dramatically in Ozark grasslands over the past 75 years, according to a study published this week in the journal Landscape Ecology.

The study examines grasslands called dolomite glades in the Mark Twain National Forest near Ava, Missouri. It analyzed historical aerial photos and found that woody vegetation cover increased from 8 percent in 1939 to 59 percent in 2014.

ANN ARBOR--Inspired by the Labyrinth of Greek mythology, a new chip etched with fluid channels sends blood samples through a hydrodynamic maze to separate out rare circulating cancer cells into a relatively clean stream for analysis. It is already in use in a breast cancer clinical trial.

The first large-scale study of ancient human DNA from sub-Saharan Africa opens a long-awaited window into the identity of prehistoric populations in the region and how they moved around and replaced one another over the past 8,000 years.

New insights into how our cells store and manage DNA during cell division could help point towards the causes of a rare developmental condition.

The findings may also help researchers understand how genes are turned on in a process linked to Cornelia de Lange syndrome - a severe condition that thwarts physical and intellectual development in children.

Scientists showed how proteins in cells work together to package DNA and ensure that it is correctly passed on - in the form of parcels called chromosomes - to new cells that are formed during cell division.

ITHACA, N.Y. - Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants. That's one conclusion drawn by the authors of a new study published in Systematic Biology.

Annapolis, MD; September 21, 2017--Three-quarters of counties in the contiguous United States present suitable environmental conditions for at least part of the year for either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes to survive if introduced, according to researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The two mosquito species can transmit viruses that cause Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever.

A research group consisting of scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University, Germany and Venezuela proved vulnerability of a two-dimensional semiconductor gallium selenide in air. This discovery will allow manufacturing superconducting nanoelectronics based on gallium selenide, which has never been previously achieved by any research team in the world.

The study was published in Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Pumpkin toadlets, found on the leaf litter of Brazil's Atlantic forest, are among the smallest frogs in the world.

An international team from Brazil, Denmark and the United Kingdom, has discovered that two species of these tiny orange frogs cannot hear the sound of their own calls. (Scientific Reports doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12145-5).

This is a unique case in the animal kingdom of a communication signal persisting even after the target audience has lost the ability to detect it.

A remote cave in Eastern Turkmenistan was found to shelter a marvelous cave-adapted inhabitant that turned out to represent a species and genus new to science. This new troglodyte is the first of its order from Central Asia and the first strictly subterranean terrestrial creature recorded in the country.