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Many Pacific Island nations will lose 50 to 80 percent of marine species in their waters by the end of the 21st century if climate change continues unchecked, finds a new Nippon Foundation-Nereus Program study published in Marine Policy. This area of the ocean is projected to be the most severely impacted by aspects of climate change.

A study led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be critical to the development of fibrosis - scarring and excessive tissue deposition that result from abnormal healing responses and can compromise the function of vital organs.

Older patients who experience more discontinuity of care in general practice are at higher risk of emergency hospital admissions. In a UK study of 10,000 randomly selected patients over age 65, medical records were linked with hospital episode statistics. The study used two research approaches: a prospective cohort approach to assess the general impact of continuity of care on emergency admission, and a nested case-control approach to test if seeing a different GP from usual increases the risk of emergency admission during the following 30 days.

The blood-brain barrier - the semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the brain - offers important protection for a delicate organ, but in some cases, clinicians need to get past the barrier to deliver vital drugs to treat the brain. Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital are investigating a way to temporarily loosen the blood-brain barrier to deliver drugs with the assistance of microbubbles. In a new advancement, they have developed a system in preclinical models that offers a finer degree of control - and, therefore, safety - in opening the barrier.

Machine learning could improve our ability to determine whether a new drug works in the brain, potentially enabling researchers to detect drug effects that would be missed entirely by conventional statistical tests, finds a new UCL study published in Brain.

The U.S. health care system lacks the capacity to rapidly move a treatment for Alzheimer's disease from approval into wide clinical use, a shortcoming that could leave millions of people without access to transformative care if such a breakthrough occurs, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

(Boston)-- African American women with type 2 diabetes (often referred to as adult-onset diabetes) are at a greater risk for developing breast cancer.

The findings appear in the journal Cancer Research.

Evidence has emerged in recent years that the two major subtypes of breast cancer--estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer--differ in some causes. Thus, the investigators focused on whether type 2 diabetes had differing associations with ER+ and ER- cancer.

Bottom Line: Among African-American women, those with type 2 diabetes may have a higher risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Author: Julie R. Palmer, ScD, associate director of Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center, professor of epidemiology at Boston University School of Public Health, and associate director for population sciences at the BU-BMC Cancer Center

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - The more than 200 different types of human cells have the same DNA but express different ensembles of genes. Each cell type was derived from embryonic stem cells, which are called pluripotent stem cells because they can differentiate to all those different cell fates.

One very active area of biology is cells that mimic these fountainhead embryonic stem cells, cells that are called induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs. With genetic and biochemical tricks, researchers can reverse a differentiated cell -- such as a skin fibroblast -- into a pluripotent state.

Researchers are calling for a randomised clinical trial to investigate the potential role of vitamin D supplementation in improving live birth rates following assisted reproduction treatment (ART).

This follows a review and meta-analysis published today in Human Reproduction, which shows a strong link between low vitamin D concentrations in women and lower live birth rates after ART compared to women who have the right amount of vitamin D in their bodies.