Body

Rates of immunization against infectious diseases in children and adults are improving, but under-vaccination remains a problem that results in vaccine-preventable deaths and illnesses. In Europe, 11,316 cases of measles were reported during 2012, and an estimated four to 50 million symptomatic cases of flu occur each year.

Confirming earlier computational models, researchers at University of California San Diego and UC San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Arizona and Louisiana, report that episodic memories are encoded in the hippocampus of the human brain by distinct, sparse sets of neurons.

The findings are published in the January 15 issue of PNAS Online Early Edition.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- After the Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated cost sharing for screening mammograms, their rate of use rose six percentage points among older woman for whom such screenings were recommended, a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine finds.

"Out-of-pocket costs can be a potent barrier to receiving recommended preventive care," said Dr. Amal N. Trivedi, lead author. "The study showed that making mammograms free led to an increase in their use. That is good for public health."

ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are at risk of progressing to multiple myeloma or a related cancer -- even after 30 years of stability. These are the findings of a study by Mayo Clinic researchers published in the Wednesday, Jan. 17, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is a condition in which an abnormal protein, known as monoclonal protein, is found in the blood.

Chapel Hill, NC - The ability of HIV to mutate has been a major challenge to vaccine development. As the body produces antibodies to target the outer HIV envelope protein, this protein changes, thwarting the circulating antibodies' ability to neutralize it. Yet recent studies testing multivalent combinations of three broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bnAbs, have yielded promising results in animal models of HIV prevention.

PHILADELPHIA -- For patients who have never been prescribed opioids, larger numbers of tablets given with the initial prescription is associated with long-term use and more tablets leftover that could be diverted for misuse or abuse. Patients may receive 30 or more opioid tablets in an initial prescription, for example, when a much lesser quantity, such as 10-12 tablets as recommended by current emergency department prescribing guidelines, would suffice.

(Boston)--In late 2017, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) discovered and published (Science Translational Medicine, (9) 417, Nov 2017) a potential treatment target to prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from developing thrombosis (blood clots) without causing bleeding complications. They found that boosting a regulatory protein named STUB1 decreased the abundance of tissue factor (TF) and prevented blood vessel blockages in experimental models.

The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

As people pack on pounds or shed excess weight, they exhibit notable changes in their microbiome, cardiovascular system, immune system and levels of gene expression, the study found.

A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) review highlights the potential of 3D organoid models derived from patient cells to help personalize therapy for individuals with gastrointestinal cancers.

Many drugs work by inhibiting protein enzymes associated with a particular disease. Unfortunately, the same drugs can inhibit protein enzymes unrelated to the disease, resulting in harmful side effects. One potential solution is to better identify structural features that determine a protein enzyme's function.