Tech

CHICAGO (August 14, 2009)—New research findings published in the August issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons challenge the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means to improve surgical outcomes in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Researchers found that women diagnosed with breast cancer who received an MRI were more likely to undergo a mastectomy than breast conserving therapy (BCT), and may face delays in treatment. BCT is the removal of a tumor with a safe margin of normal tissue.

New UC Davis estimates say the federal government's Cash for Clunkers program is paying at least 10 times the "sticker price" to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

While carbon credits are projected to sell in the U.S. for about $28 per ton (today's price in Europe was $20), even the best-case calculation of the cost of the clunkers rebate is $237 per ton, said UC Davis transportation economist Christopher Knittel.

Three Thai orchids have been found to rely on a wide range of fungi to help them take carbon out of the soil instead of producing their own organic carbon. A detailed study of the relationship, published in the open access journal BMC Biology, also features stunning pictures of the plants.

Arlington, Va.—With HIV patients living longer thanks to advances in treatment, the primary care needs of those living with HIV have never been more important. Updated, evidence-based guidelines from the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) are designed to help providers manage the care of those living with this complex chronic infection.

TEMPE, Ariz. – Evidence that early modern humans living on the coast of the far southern tip of Africa 72,000 years ago employed pyrotechnology, the controlled use of fire, to increase the quality and efficiency of their stone tool manufacturing process, is being reported in the Aug. 14 issue of Science.

Scientists investigating the effects of cannabis on bone health have found that its impact varies dramatically with age.

The study has found that although cannabis could reduce bone strength in young people, it may protect against osteoporosis, a weakening of the bones, in later life.

The team at the University of Edinburgh has shown that a molecule found naturally in the body, which can be activated by cannabis – called the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) – is key to the development of osteoporosis.

ATLANTA—August 13, 2009—A new review says using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgery to assess the extent of early breast cancer has not been shown to improve surgical planning, reduce follow-up surgery, or reduce the risk of local recurrences. The review, appearing early online in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, says evidence shows that MRI increases the chances of more extensive surgery over conservative approaches, with no evidence that it improves surgical care or prognosis.

While researchers can't promise delivery to a parallel universe or a school for wizards, fiction works like Pullman's 'Dark Materials' and JK Rowling's 'Harry Potter' are steps closer to reality now that researchers in China have created the first tunable electromagnetic gateway.

In their research paper, the researchers from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Fudan University in Shanghai describe the concept of a "a gateway that can block electromagnetic waves but that allows the passage of other entities" like a "'hidden portal' as mentioned in fictions."

For many Americans who live on the Atlantic coast, Andrew, Ivan and Katrina are more than just names--they are reminders of the devastating impact of cyclonic activity in the region during hurricane season. If it seems like hurricane seasons have been more active in recent years, you're on to something. According to a paper published in the August 13 issue of Nature, the frequency and strength of these powerful storms has grown in recent decades.

CHICAGO – The American Dietetic Association has published new evidence-based nutrition practice guidelines for registered dietitians on nutrition care for patients with spinal cord injury.

The guidelines contain systematically developed recommendations to assist practitioners in appropriate nutrition care, with specific recommendations on: